LANGE Gastro

Question Answer
Chronic GERD Risk Barrets Esoghagus
Hep D Infection Req Hep B
RF for non-healing duodenal Ulcer Smoking
Perifollicular hemorrhages, ecchymoses of legs, bleeding gums, loose teeth and GI bleed Scurvy – lack of Vitamin C
Melanin spots on lips, buccal mucosa, and tongue with bleeding polypoid lesions in the small intestines Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
Telangiectasias on the face and buccal mucosa, and GI tract Rendu-Osler-Weber
Cafe au late pigmentation, pedunculated fibromas, fibromas of GI tract that may bleed Neurofibromatosis
Interferon use is contraindicated in Pts with autoimmune disease, severe liver disease and cardiac arrhythmia
Middle age woman, with elevated cholestatic liver enzymes. No other risk factors. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis assoc with? Inflammatory bowel disease
Large volume, water, nonbloody diarrhea w/ N&V Characterizes small bowel diarrhea caused by enterotoxinogenic E.Coli or virus
Inflammatory diarrhea characterized by small volume, bloody diarrhea without prominent nausea Salmonella, shigella, cDiff, Campylobacter
Hep C Maternal-neonatal transmission is low, RNA virus, incubation 6-7 weeks.
Soft tissue thickening of the pericolic fat, diverticula, thickening of bowel wall. CT findings of diverticulitis
MC cause of pill-induced esophagitis NSAIDs
MC malignant tumor of AA male Squamous Cell
MC Malignant tumor of white adenocarinoma
Diverticulosis most often occurs where? Sigmoid Colon
Indicated to confirm celiac sprue in a pt with + serologic testing Intestinal Biopsy
Celiac Sprue serologic test IgA endomysial antibody
Primary biliary cirrhosis Antimitochondrial antibodies
First degree relative with adenomas or CRC, when should you begin screening? 40 yo or 10 year younger than age of diagnosis of affected relative
Mucosal tear of GE junction w/h/o vomiting Mallory-Weiss Tear
Congenital syndrome assoc with anemia and webbing of esophagus Plummer-Vinson
Gastrin-secreting neuroendocrine tumors resulting in acid hypersecretion Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
Giardia TOC Metronidazole
Campylobacter TOC Eythromycin
Cholera TOC Doxycyline or tetracycline
Cholera and Shigellosis Quinolones
Markle Sign Jar sign, may prove superior to rebound tenderness as a localizing sign of peritoneal irriation. Patients stand on toes, then drop to heels.
Pellagra Niacin Deficiency
3D's of Pellagra Dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia
Cholelithiasis Test of Choice Ultrasound
Dermatatitis Herpetiformis Nearly all will have Celiac Disease
Whipple Disease Clinical Profile 40-60 yo, arthritis, malabsorption
Crohns Affects terminal ileum, and proximal ascending colon
Ulcerative Colitis Only affects colon, MC distal part
C.Diff Colitis TOC Oral Metronidazole
Most frequent cause of intestinal obstruction before 2 yrs old Intussception
Vit B12 binds Intrinsic factor. What is Intrinsic factor excreted from? Gastric Parietal Cells
Iron Absorption Occurs where? Stomach, duodenum, and upper jejunum
Free Intraperitoneal air on Abdominal XR Peptic Ulcer Perforation
Sudden onset of severe abd. Pain, rigid abdomen, quiet abdomen + free air Peptic Ulcer Perforation
MC cause of acute gastroenteritis in children Rotavirus
Traveler's diarrhea: top offending agent E.coli, then shigella and C. Jejuni
First Line tx for mild-moderate ulcerative pancolitis Oral 5-ASA products ie. Sulfasalazine or mesalamine
Severe or unresponsive ulcerative colitis Immunomodulating agents: Infliximab
Pt hematemesis, what is cause? Peptic ulcer
Develop in majority of critically ill pts w/I 72 hrs? Stress Ulcer
Gastric Cancer Risks H. Pylori and dietary nitrates
Chronic diarrhea, anorexia, malabsorption, and weight loss. Giardia Lambia
MC intestinal protozoal infection in children in US, diagnosis? Giardia Lambia; parasite in stool, or antigen in feces
LUQ/Epigastric pain, radiates to shoulder/back, fever, N/V and shock. Acute Pancreatitis
Gastroenteritis No abdominal pain
Gilbert syndrome Elevations of unconjugated (indirect) bilirubin result from hemolysis or insability to conjugate bilirubin in the liver
Conjugated (direct) bilirubin Results from impaired excretion of bili from liver due to hepatocellular disease ie hepatitis or obstruction of bile ducts from cholelithiasis, sclerosing cholangitis, and cancer of biliary ducts
Elderly woman with henia palpated below the inguinal ligament Rare: obturator hernia
Cause of Thiamine Deficiency Chronic Alcoholism
IBS symptoms abdominal pain relieved by defacation, constipation, loose or watery stools, mucus in stools, and bloating.

Chapter 14

Term Definition
Holy Land the region where the site of the Holy Temple of the Jews was located and where Jesus had lived and taught.
Pope Urban II Leader of the Roman Catholic Church who asked European Christians to take up arms against Muslims, starting the Crusades.
Crusades a series of religious wars launched by European Christians in the Middle Ages.
Saladin Muslim sultan who overthrew the Seljuk Turks and drove the Christians out of Jerusalem, leading to the Third Crusade.
Richard the Lion-Hearted King of England who led forces against the army of Saladin during the Third Crusade.
Hanseatic League a group of cities and towns in northern Germany that worked together to promote and protect trade.
Credit the promise of later payment for goods bought.
Guilds trade organizations in which all members set standards and prices for their products.
Apprentice someone who spent several years with a skilled crafter to learn basic skills of the craft.
Journeyman a person who has learned the basics of a career as an apprentice but is still learning from masters and has not yet opened his own shop.
Gothic building style that used advances in engineering to make churches taller and brighter than earlier churches.
Flying Buttresses supports that helped hold up church walls from the outside, allowing for much higher ceilings and an interior that had no columns.
Illumination the process of decorating a written manuscript with pictures or designs.
Hildegard of Bingen a famous medieval nun who was both a poet and a composer.
Troubadours wandering singers who performed epics and romances.
Geoffrey Chaucer English author of the Canterbury Tales.
Dante Alighieri Italian author of the Divine Comedy.
Thomas Aquinas influential scholar who argued that classical ideas could be used to improve people's understanding of Christian teachings.
Scholasticism a combination of Christian faith and rational thought set forth by Aquinas.
Heresy beliefs that oppose the church's official teachings.
Inquisitions legal procedures supervised by special judges who tried suspected heretics.
Friars members of religious orders who took vows of poverty and obedience and lived among the people to whom they preached.
Hundred Years' War a war between Britain and France that began as a dispute over the throne of France.
Joan of Arc peasant girl who led the French into battle during the Hundred Years' War and won several victories before she was captured, tried, and executed by the British.
Wars of the Roses conflict between the York and Lancaster families for the English throne.
Henry VII nobleman whose rise to king ended the Wars of the Roses and started a new era in English history.
Black Death a devastating plague that swept across Europe between 1347 and 1351.


Question Answer
Low-grade fever, nonproductive cough, rare bullous myringitis, cold agglutins Mycoplasma PNA
Young adults, college settings Mycoplasma PNA
Alcohol Abuse PNA Klebsiella PNA
Cystic Fibrosis Pseudamonas
Air Conditioning/Aerosolized Water Legionella
Leukemia,lymphoma Fungus
Children <1 yr RSV
Children, <2yr Parainfluenza
Abrupt high fever, rigor, myalgias, rusty sputum, productive cough, pleuritic chest pain, CXR: lobar consolidation Strep Pneumo
Acute Bronchitis, symptomtic relief Bronchodilator (albuterol)
Bilateral Hilar adenopathy, no parenchymal abnrl, dry cough, suspect sarcoid Bx mediastinal LN
Transmitted by droplet nuclei Mycobacterium TB, Influenza
Currant Jelly Sputum, alcohol abuse, hemoptysis, SOB, CXR: cavitations Klebsiella PNA
Mycoplasma PNA tx Macrolides (erythromycin)
Chlamydia Infection Tetracycline
Hospital Acquired Cefepime, Ticarcillin/Clauvanic acid, Piperacilline/tazobactam, meropenem
Increased LDH, hypoxemia, CXR: interstial infiltrates Pneumocystis jiroveci
Hyponatremia, diarrhea, chronic cardiac or respiratory dz Legionella PNA
Longer prodrome, sore throat, hoarseness Chlamydia PNA
Community Acquired PNA Tx Macrolides (clarithromycin)
CXR: hilar adenopathy, infiltrates or single or multiple nodules, anorexia, weight loss, asthenia and cough Bronchogenic Carcinoma
CXR: Hyperinflation of lungs and flattended diaphragms Asthma, COPD
CXR: dilated, thickened bronchi, scattered opacities, and atelectasis Bronchiectasis
h/o COPD, retrosternal CP, narrow splitting S1, systolic ejection click, accentuation of 2nd heart sound CXR: pruning of large pulmonary arteries. Pulmonary Hypertension
Pneumocystis Jiroveci Tx Bactrim
Eggshell calcification of hilar or mediastinal LN silicosis
CXR: cavitation lung abscess or progressive primary TB
CXR: pleural thickening mesothelioma
CXR: Hilar and mediastinal abnormalities Lung Cancer
CXR: Hyperinflation (and bullae) Emphysema
Rapid, deep labored Breathing Kussmaul
Irregular and varying depth breathing ataxic
Periods of deep breathing alternate with periods of apnea Cheyne-Stokes Breathing
CXR: indistinct heart border appearance, ground glass Asbestosis
CXR: irregular opacities- reticular to nodular pattern Coal Miners
CXR: patchy fibrosis, produced from spores, and hypersensitive pneumonitis Farms lungs
PNA Physical Exam Findings inspiratory crackles, bronchial breath sounds, incr tactile fremitus, transmitted voice sounds
Lung Cancer with worst prognosis Small cell lung cancer
TB Tx for immunocompetent persons Minimum 6 mo INH and RIF, with initial 2 mo PZA and SM or EMB
Atypical PNA CXR Diffuse infiltrates, unilateral lower lung infiltrates
Legionella Tx for immunocompromised patients: TOC Azithro or Clarithromycin, or fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin)
Gold Standard Imaging for DVT Contast Venography
PE tx in hemodynamically unstable patient thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (t-Pa)
Inflammed nasal turbinates, nonproductive cough, postnasal drip, cobblestoning of posterior pharynx, diffuse bilateral end expiratory wheezes: Lab test for diagnosis Spirometry for asthma
Asthma: nighttime symptoms and daily exacerbations Severe Persistent
Long acting bronchodilators Ie. Salmeterol
LABA long-term prevention of asthma, nocturnal sx, and prevention of exercise induced bronchospasm
Inhaled Corticosteroid Fluticasone
Anticholinergic Agent for asthma Ipratropium – used to reverse vagally mediated bronchospasm but not allergen or exercise induced spasm
Sx: chronic cough, purulent sputum, hemoptysis, recurrent PNA and CF associated Bronchiectasis
Most sensitive to detect small amount of pleural fluid Chest CT
Transudative Fluid CHF
Tranusdative Fluid Labs Gluc >60, Protein <3.0, WBC <1000, LDH <200
Exudative Fluid Carcinoma
Exudative Fluid Labs Gluc <60, Protein >3.0, WBC <1000, LDH >200
CXR: expiratory film shows a visceral pleural line. Pneumothorax
Pneumothorax PE Findings Decrease Tactile Fremitus, hyperresonance
Small Pneumothorax CXR type Expiratory
Right ventricular hypertrophy, due to COPD Findings Cor Pulmonale: distended neck veins, prominent epigastric pulsations
Cystic Fibrosis MC initial presentation Failure to Thrive
2-3 weeks cough, coryza without fever, high pitched inspiratory sound Pertussis
Pertussis Tx Erythromycin, clarithromycin or azithromycin
Pertussis HM Treat household contacts
Coal worker's penumoconiosis (CWP) lab finding Decreased FEV1
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Tx no treatment improves survival. Oral corticosteroids with an immunosuppresive agent is Rx
Preterm Infant with apneic events Tx Methylxanthines ie caffeine citrate (20mg/kg loading dose, then 5-10 mg/kg/day)
Preterm Infant with Respiratory distress: rapid shallow breathing, grunting retractions, duskiness of skin. CXR: bilateral atelectasis Hyaline Membrane Disease
Bronchiolitis Agent RSV
Erythema Infectiosum Agent Parvovirus
Influenza A Treatment Inhaled zanamivir or oral oseltamivir
Pertussis Stages: congestion, rhinnorhea, low grade fever, and sneezing 1st stage: Catarrhal
Pertussis Stages: onset of coughing 2nd stage: paroxysmal
Perstussis Stages: number, severity, and duration of coughing episodes diminish 3rd stage: convalescent stage
Aphonia inability to vocalize, sign of complete obstruction
Horner Syndrome ipsilateral ptosis (drooping eyelid), miosis (constricted pupil), and anhidrosis (hemifacial loss of sweating); found in patients with lung cancer
Acute Exacerbations of chronic bronchitis Macrolides, fluoroquinolones and Augmentin
Penicillin Allergy No Cephalosporins
Healthy males 20-40 yo are at risk for Spontaneous Pneumothorax
Recently converted, Previous untreated TB patient Tx Isonizid, Rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol
60 yo, insidious onset of DOE, and nonproductive cough, and fatigue. PE: bibasilar inspiratory crackles, and clubbing of fingers. CXR: reticular pattern of densities in the lower lung fields. Diagnosis with what labs? Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis: Surgical Lung Biopsy
Abnrl permanent enlargement of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles accompanied by destruction of their walls and without obvious fibrosis Emphysema
"Posttussive Rales", dry cough progresses to productive cough, fever, drenching night sweats, anorexia and WL TB
Biopsy revealing caseating granulomas (necrotizing granulomas) TB
LTBI Tx INH x 9mo or RIF 4 mo or RIF and PZA for 2 mo.
Active TB INH/RIF/PZA/EMB x 2 mo, followed by INF/RIF x 4 mo
INH side effects (isoniazid) hepatitis, peripheral neuropathy, coadminister B6 to reduce risk
RIF side effects (Rifampin) hepatitis, flu sendrome, orange body fluid (orange urine)
EMB (ethambutol) optic neuritis (red-green vision loss)
PZA pyrazinamide
Active TB Tx duration 6-9 mo
HIV with active TB Tx duration 1 yr
TB Skin Test Positive: >/= 5 mm HIV+, Recent contacts to those with active TB, CXR evidence, immunosuppressed pts on steroids
TB Skin Test Positive: >/= 10 mm Recent immigrants from High TB areas, HIV – IVDU, laboratory personnel, Residents/employees of high risk congregate settings, Persons with certain medical conditions: DM, CRF, children <4yo, or infants/children/adoles exposed to adults at high risk
TB Skin Test Positive: >/= 15 mm No risk facts for TB
MC type of bronchogenic carcinoma Adenocarcinoma
Bronchial in origin, centrally located mass, p/w hemoptysis Squamous cell carcinoma
Appears in periphery of lungs, arises from mucous glands, mets to distant organs Adenocarcinoma
Bronchoscopy reveals a pink or purple central lesion that is well vascularized Carcinoid Tumor
Lung Cancer Complications SPHERE: SVC syndrome, Pancoast's tumor (tumor of lung apex, causes Horner's syndrome) Horner's syndrome, Endocrine (carcinoid syndrome: flushing, diarrhea, telangiectasias), Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (hoarseness) Effusions (exudative)
Lights Criteris for Exudative Fluid Protein:Serum protein >0.5; Fluid LDH:serumLDH >0.6, Fluid LDH greath than 2/3 ULN for serum LDH
COPD and asthma Airflow obstruction FEV1/FVC:<75%.
Asthma Intermittent Lung Function FEV1>80%, FEV1/FVC normal
Asthma Mild Persistent >2xweek, Night: sx 3-4/mo, rescue >2 days per week, not more than 1xper day
Asthma Moderate Persistent Daily Sx, Night: >1xweek, daily use of rescue
Asthma Moderate Persistent Lung Function 60%<FEV1<80%, FEV1/FVC reduced 5%
Asthma Mild Persistent Lung Function FEV1>80% predicted, FEV1/FVC normal
Severe Persistent Continual Sx, Extremely limited activities, Night: 7x/wk, Rescue: several x/day
Severe Persistent Lung Function FEV1<60% predicted, FEV1/FVC reduced >5%
Parenchymal bulllae and subpleural blebs pathogno. Emphysema
Nonspecifc peribronchial and perivascular markings Chronic Bronchitis
Sweat Chloride Test Positive >60 mEq/L
Exudative effusion "leaky capillaries" infection, malignancy, trauma
Transudative Fluid "intact capillaries" increased hydrostatic or decr oncotic pressure ie. CHF, atelectasis, renal or liver disease (cirrhosis)
Mediastinum is shifted away or towards side of effusion away
Visceral pleural line Pneumothorax
Mediatinal shift to the contralateral side Tension Pneumothoras
Pneumothorax CXR Expiratory – look for visceral line
PE test Spiral CT
Definitive Test for diagnosis of PE Pulmonary Angiography
Virchows Triad For PE: hypercoagulable state, venous stasis, and vascular initmal inflammation or injury
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis CT diffuse, patchy infiltrates with honeycombing
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis PFT restrictive pattern: decr Lung volume with normal to incr FEV1/FVC ratio
Elevated ACE and paratracheal lymph nodes Sarcoidosis

La meteo Weather

Question Answer
Il fait beau. It is beautiful.
C'est orageux. It is stormy.
C'est nuageux. It is cloudy.
Il fait sombre. It is dark.
Il fait soleil. It is sunny.
Il fait chaud. It is hot.
Il fait froid. It is cold.
Il gele. It is freezing.
Il fait frais. It is cool.
Il fait du vent. It is windy.
Il grele. It is hailing.
C'est brumeux. It is foggy.

Male Vocab 1 Male Reproductive System Vocab 1

Question Answer
Vas deferens The duct that conveys sperm from the testicle to the urethra.
Urethra The duct by which urineis conveyed out of the body from the bladder, and which in male vertebrates also conveys semen.
Testes An organ that produces spermatozoa (Male reproductive cells).
Sperm The mature motile male sex cell of an animal, by which the ovum is fertilized, typically having a compact head and one or more long flagella for swimming.
Scrotum A pouch of skin containing the testicles.
Epididymis A highly convoluted duct behind the testis, along which sperm passes to the vas deferens.
Prostate Gland A gland surroundng the neck of the bladder in male mammals and releasing prostatic fluid.

Jane Eyre

Term Definition
ñèðîòà an orphan
çëîé è æåñòîêèé wicked and cruel
îòâðàòèòåëüíûé disgusting
íàïàäêè inflictions
âîñïèòûâàòüñÿ êåì-òî be brought up by
ïîêàçàòü êîìó-òî ÿçûê thrust one's tongue at sbm
óáèéöà murderer
ðàáîâëàäåëåö slave-driver
ñî÷èòüñÿ(êàïëÿìè) trickle
ïîðàæåíû bellowed
íàãëî impudence
âñòóïèòüñÿ çà êîãî-òî taking smd side
óæàñíûé awful
ðåçêàÿ áîëü sharp pain
òèðàí tyrant

Chapter 11

Question Answer
Where do most legislators begin their political career? Local politics
Which best defines a constituent? Residents of an electoral district represented by an elected official
Which lawmakers must be a at least 30 years of age and a US citizen for at least 9 years? US Senators
Based on informal qualifications lawmakers are excepted to meet today, a person with which of the following qualities is most likely to become a lawmaker? a college degree and a background in business or law
What determines the number of seats in the Senate? The number of seats depends on each state's population
Appointment is the process of… Dividing the House seats among the states according to each state's population
Which of there events triggers reapportionment of seats in the House of Representatives? A census conducted every 10 years
You are a new house member. You represent your district by responding directly to the needs of your constituents. This means that you see your job as…. An incumbent
The assistant floor leaders in the House who keep the leadership informed and persuade party members to vote along party lines are called…. Majority/minority whip
The Constitution assigns a position in Congress to the Vice President. That position is… Presiding officer of the Senate
One example of a permanent committee in Congress is a… Standing committee
Which group handles most of the detailed work of lawmaking in Congress? Standing committee
A conference committee is made of members from both the… Republican and demcratic party
Who helps members of congress with a variety of tasks, including answering constituents questions, writing speeches, and drafting bills? Their staff
Unofficial groups formed by congress to pursue particular goals and interests are called… Caucus and coalitions
What do the powers of oversight, confirmation, impeachment, ratification, override, and amendment have in common? The Senate or Congress checks either the executive or judicial branch in them or both
What power can congress use to check the power of the judicial branch? Amendment
A bill can become law only after… Both houses of Congress agree on the bill
Unlike other legislation, tax bills can originate…. From from the house
The constitution declared that war-making powers… Are shared between Congress and the president
Which lawmakers must be at least 30 years old and U.S. citizens for at least nine years? U.S senators
Based on informal qualifications lawmakers are expected to meet today, a person with which of the following qualities is most likely to become a lawmaker? A college degree and a background in business or law
Apportionment is the process of dividing the House seats among the states according to each state's population.
You are a new House member. You represent your district by responding directly to the needs of your constituents. This means that you see your job as Delegate
What does it mean when lawmakers secure large amounts of pork? They have won federally-funded projects for their home districts
How is Congress different than bicameral legislatures in most countries? The two houses of Congress are equal in power.
The assistant floor leaders in the House who keep the leadership informed and persuade party members to vote along party lines are called the majority and minority whips.
Which of the following powers can Congress use to check the power of the judicial branch? Proposing an amendment to the Constitution
Unlike other legislation, tax bills can originate… Only in the House.
The Constitution declared that war-making powers are shared between Congress and the president
What do legislators do when they take on casework? They help their constituents solve problems that involve the federal government.
Which statement about state legislatures is true? Nebraska is the only state with a unicameral, or one-house, legislature.
In which type of state legislature do members spend about half of their time as lawmakers? citizen legislatures
State legislators are paid much less than members of Congress.
Why do some people advocate term limits for state legislators? They believe new legislators are closer to their constituents.
Congressional committees get assistance from staff members. What other organizations help them? support agencies
Formal qualifications Age and citizenship; House: 25 years 7 years resident; Senate: 30 years 9 years resident
Informal qualifications Gender, education, race, occupation
conference committee a temporary committee of legislators from both the House and Senate created to work out differences in bills passed by both chambers
joint committee a permanent committee of legislators from both the House and Senate that deals with matters of common interest, such as economic policy
joint resolution an official statement issued by both houses of Congress; once signed by the president, a joint resolution has the force of law
select committee a temporary committee formed by either the House or Senate to investigate a specific problem; also called a special committee
standing committee a permanent committee of legislators from either the House or Senate responsible for specific policy areas, such as foreign affairs or agriculture
subcommittee a small legislative committee within a larger, standing committee; subcommittees do much of the work of reviewing legislation
Delegate Seek to represent their districts by responding directly to the wishes or needs of their constituents
Trustee Represent their district by exercising their best independent judgement

Photo and resper efrgtweyhruji7tk8ol

Term Definition
Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities.
Cellular respiration Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Chloroplast Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized subunits, in plant and algal cells. Their discovery inside plant cells is usually credited to Julius von Sachs, an influential botanist and author of standard …
Chlorophyll Chlorophyll is any of several closely related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants. Its name is derived from the Greek words ??????, chloros and ??????, phyllon.
Glucose Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C?H??O?. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight.
Mitochondria The mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms. Some cells in some multicellular organisms may however lack them
Photosynthesis equation A simple word equation that can be used to describe the process of photosynthesis is carbon dioxide + water —> glucose + oxygen + water. A balanced chemical equation for the process can be written as 6CO2 + 6H2O —> C6H12O6 + 6O2.
Respiration equation Image result for Respiration equationWhen we examine the equation for cellular respiration, we see that the reactants are glucose and oxygen (for aerobic respiration), and the products are carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.
Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide is a colorless gas with a density about 50% higher than that of dry air. Carbon dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms.
Diffusion Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. This is also referred to as the movement of a substance down a concentration gradient.
Osmosis Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
Active transport the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.

Ch 10 Muslim World

Question Answer
The duties or main beliefs of Islam are called? 5 pillars
What do Muslims believe about Muhammad? The last and greatest prophet
The house of worship and leader of religious services are called what and what? Mosque and muezzin
A system of law that regulates the family life, moral conduct, business life, and community life of muslims. Sharia
The pilgrimage that each Muslim strives to make at least once in a lifetime. Hajj
What does Islam mean in Arabic Allah
Who did Muslims consider "people of the book"? Jews and christians
How were conquered peoples treated by the Muslim Empire? They were tolerant of them
What was the birthplace of Islam? Mecca and Medina
After the death of Muhammad, internal conflict in Islam developed because… Never specified a successor or told them how to choose one
What was true of the rightly guided caliphs? All had a relationship with Muhammad
Which is not true of the Muslim class system? Some class mobility existed with conversion to Islam
Why did Islam spread successfully and develop and empire? Felt the religion gave them more equality, excited about teaching and converting religion, display military and strong leadership
All three monotheists religions teach the same ethical values such… Love compassion respect and honesty
What was the main difference between the Sunni and shiite branches of Islam? Shia believe the caliph needed to me relevant of Muhammad
What was the preferred method of Muslim scientists? Observation based on logical experiments
How did the beliefs and practice of Islam create unity and strength amount Muslims in the 600' It provided a common faith
Why was Mecca an important city in western Arabia? Mecca was the center of trade and had the site of ka'aba
How did Islam spread Arabic culture? As people learned Arabic for worship they could then understand Arabic culture
Why did the Shia oppose the rule of the Umayyads? They were not Muhammad's desendents
What attracted non-Muslims to Islamic culture? Religious teachings learning and prosperity and stays in society
What ties the Abbasid caliphate and the independent Muslims states together? Religion language and trade
What was the role of women in society in Muslim society? Raising children relating to marriage family and property
How did Muslim scholars help preserve the knowledge of the ancient Greeks and romans By collecting translating and critiquing ancient texts
What role did cities play in the advancement of Muslim culture? Arts and learning and it demonstrated rulers wealth and sophistication
What united the scholars of different cultures who worked in the house of wisdom? A love of learning
What do you consider the most significant developments in scholarship and the arts during the reign of the Abbasids? Calligraphy literature algebra optics and guide for the perplexed
What was the government of Muslim culture? Theocracy(monarchy)
What was the religion? Islam
What was the social class structure King government officials merchants/artisans farmers and religious officials
What was the job specialization? Government officials merchants trading artisans teachers and farmers
What were the public works? Calligraphy poetry literature and domes/mosques
What were the cities? Mecca and Damascus
What was the writing? Arabic
What was the art/architecture? Poetry literature paintings domes/mosques and building of universities

Miracle Worker vocab

Term Definition
unkempt (adjective) untidy; uncombed; messy
vivacious (adjective)full of life; lively
inarticulate (adjective)not clearly expressed or pronounced; unclear
obstinate (adjective)stubborn; difficult to persuade
precocious (adjective)displaying maturity at an unusually ealr age
irately (adverb) in an enraged manner; angrily
simultaneously (adverb)at the same time
contemplate (verb)to think about something
oblivious (adjective)unaware, not noticing
benign (adjective)kind and gentle