A Exam 4

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Term Definition
5 functions of the Respiratory System 1. Provides extensive gas exchange surface area between air and circulating blood 2. Moves air to and from exchange surfaces of lungs 3. Protects surfaces from outside environment 4. Produces sounds 5. Participates in olfactory sense
What does the Conducting Portion consist of? Everything from nasal cavity to terminal bronchioles
What is the function of the Conduction system? Filter, warm, humidify the air to the lungs.
What does the Respiratory portion consist of? Bronchioles and Alveoli
What is the function of the Respiratory portion ? Alveoli= Gas exchange
Upper respiratory includes? Anything above the larynx to nasal cavity. Nose, Nasal Cavity, Sinuses, Pharynx.
Lower respiratory includes? The larynx it's self and everything down. Larynx, Trachea, bronchus, bronchioles, Alveoli.
What is the Respiratory Defense System (mucous escalator)? Sweeps up debris trapped in mucous toward pharynx
What does the nasal cavity do? Warms and humidifies air to the lungs
____ is the piece of cartilage that opens and closes the trachea? Epiglottis
_____ has c shaped cartilages and is the tube that leads to the lungs? Trachea
What happens at the Alveoli? Gas exchange
________ pneumocyte make up the Alveoli their selfs. Type 1
________ pneumocyte make up the surfactant, which is the liquid that stays in the alveoli to keep the little balloons open. Type 2
______ is actual breathing getting air in and out. Exchanging O2 and CO2 with the environment. External Respiration
______ is the cells using O2 and making CO2. Internal Respiration
_______ defines the relationship between gas pressure and volume. Boyle's Law
What happens when you inhale, and how does Boyle's Law relate? (ESSAY 1) Contract your diaphragm, contracts external intercostals= Bigger Box Bigger Box= lower atmospheric pressure which allows air to Flow in.
What happens when you exhale, and how does Boyle's Law relate? Relax everything, box gets smaller, pressure goes up which pushes air out.
What does 75% of the work and is the number 1 muscle for breathing? Diaphragm
______ do 24.9% of breathing are the number 2 muscles for breathing? External Intercostals
What are the 4 primary lung volumes? 1. Resting Tidal Volume 2. Expiratory Reserve Volume 3. Residual Volume 4. Inspiratory Reserve Volume
_______ How much air is coming in and out with one breath. Resting Tidal Volume (TV)
_______ is After taking a normal breath out, it's the little extra you can breath out. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
__________ is the amount of air, under normal circumstances that should never leave your lungs. When you get the air knocked out of you, some of it comes out but there's still some in there Residual Volume (RV)
______  is the little extra amount of air you can take in after inhaling. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
________ is the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressure exerted by each gas. 23:30 Daltons Law
_______ is how soluble a gas is in a fluid. Henry's Law
How do you transport O2 in the body? Bind O2 to an Iron in hemoglobins.
How do you transport CO2 in the body? Carbonic Acid
CO2 combines with _______ to form Carbonic Acid? Water
______ is the chronic condition characterized by destruction of alveolar surfaces. Emphysema
_______ inflammation of the bronchi that look bluish and washed out. Bronchitis
URINARY
Urinary Flow (ESSAY 2) Cortex, Glomerulus, PCT, Nephron Loop, DCT, Collecting Duct, Minor Calyx, Major Calyx, Renal Pelvis, Ureter, Bladder, Internal Urethral Sphincter, External Urethral Sphincter, Urethra
_______ deliver blood to the Glomerulus? Afferent Tubes
__________ take blood away from the glomerulus? Efferent Tubes
_______ filters in the kidney? Glomerulus
________ reabsorbs 60-70% of everything? PCT
_________ reabsorbs water? Descending Nephron Loop
_________ reabsorbs salt? Ascending Nephron Loop
________ is where the hormones work to hold onto anything extra you need? DCT
________ reabsorbs water if your dehydrated with the help from ________ ? Collecting Duct/ ADH
What is the whole purpose of urine secretion? To get rid of waist
What controls the filtration rate to the kidney? 1. Autoregulation 2. Hormonal Regulation 3. Autonomic Regulation
What happens during Autoregulation and low blood pressure? At the Glomerulus the afferent artery's dilate to allow more blood flow in, and efferent constricts to slow the blood going out. = Increases Pressure to correct
If autoregulation fails to correct, what does the body do next? Hormonal Regulation
What happens during Hormonal Regulation? Body makes Renin, which travels to the lungs and gets transmitted to angiotensin 2 to raise the body's over all blood pressure.
How does ADH work with DCT and Collecting duct? If your dehydrated, the body makes ADH and the body tries to reabsorb as much water as possible making the urine more dilute.
Do you make ADH if your hydrated? No
_________ is made up of the detrusor muscle and is a storage tank for urine? Bladder

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