A&P 9 Nervous Tissue

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Term Definition
Central Nervous System The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. Spinal cord connects the brain. CNS processes many kinds of information, source of thoughts, emotions, and memories.
Peripheral Nervous System PNS includes all nervous tissue outside the CNS. Components include nerves, ganglia, enteric plexuses, and sensory receptors. Ganglia are small masses of nervous tissue, consisting primarily of neuron cell bodies.
PNS divided into Somatic and Autonomic Brain (Central) – Peripheral – Somatic (voluntary) ; Autonomic (involuntary) ; Enteric (stomach, brain of the gut)
Three basic functions of the nervous system Sensory = internal/external (detect things); Integrative function = integrates sensory information by analyzing or storing and makes decisions; Motor functions = response, effectors to do (muscles/glands)
Functional Classifications of Neurons Sensory receptor – stimulus activates it and forms action potential into the CNS; Motor neurons convey from the brain (CNS) to PNS; Interneurons – elicit motor response
Neurotransmitter Endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission. They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell.
Neurotransmitter role nerve impulse conduction They relay signals or messages from the pre-synaptic terminal to the post synaptic terminal.
Neuroglia Half the volume of CNS, smaller than neurons, multiply or divide (unlike neurons), fills in space of neurons (after accident/injury etc.) aka “glue”
Myelination Insulates and protects neurons from interference, amount increases from birth to maturity
Multiple Sclerosis Progressive destruction of myelin sheaths of neurons in CNS. Without insulation neurons slows/short circuits nerve impulses, progressive loss of function.
Epilepsy Neurotransmitters fire too much causing seizures
Neuron Regeneration Humans have limited powers of regeneration (neurons). PNS axons and dendrites (end pieces) can undergo repair. CNS not able to due to the Neuroglia and fetal development.
Local Anesthetics Drugs that block pain by blocking the opening of voltage-gated Na+ channels. Nerve impulses cannot conduct past region, signals don’t reach the CNS.
SSRI Selectively block reuptake of specific neurotransmitters. Block reuptake of serotonin prolonging the activity of this neurotransmitter at synapses in the brain.

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