ap lecture t2 p2

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functional classification based on range of motion of the joint
structural classification relies on the anatomical organization of the joint
types of functional classifications of joints synarthrosis – immovable joint. amphiarthrosis – slightly movable joint. Diarthrosis – freely movable joint.
types of structural classifications of joints bony, fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial
gomphosis a synarthorosis that binds the teeth to bony sockets in the maxillae and mandible
synchondrosis a rigid, cartilaginous bridge between two articulating bones.. the cartilaginous connection between the ends of the first pair of verebrosternal ribs and manubrium of the sternum is a synchondrosis
synostosis rigid, immovable joint created when two bones fuse and line eventually disappears
syndesmosis syndesmosis bones are connected by a ligament. distal joint between the tibia and fibula
symphysis articulating bones are connected by a wedge or pad of fibrocartilage. ex. joint between the two pubic bones
synovial permits a wider range of motion. made of slippery proteoglycans secreted by fibroblasts. function: lube, nutrient distribution and shock absorption
monoaxial movement in one direction ex. elbow
biaxial movement in two planes; ribs and wrist
triaxial movement in three planes ex. hips`
the ends of long bones have articular cartilage which is lubed by synovial fluid
synovial membrane lines the joint cavities. produces synovial fluid which reduces friction. no basal or reticular lamina. cells are derived from macrophages and fibroblasts
cartilages cushion the joint. Fibrocartilage pad called a meniscus
fats pad superficial to the joint capsule. protect articular cartilages
ligaments support, strengthens joints. Sprain- ligaments with torn collagen fibers
tendons attach to muscles around joints help support joint
bursae pockets of synovial fluid. cushion areas where tendons or ligaments rub
most common knee injury torn meniscus which is caused by a twisting motion of knee while bearing weight
dislocation luxation – articulating surfaces forces out of position. damages articular cartilage, ligaments, joint capsule
subluxation a partial dislocation
the unhappy triad contains anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), medial collateral ligament, and medial meniscus
test for torn acl lachman test
osteoarthritis due to defective integrity of articular cartilage in addition to related changes in the underlying bone at the joint margins. The top and bottom of the bones begin to hit. most common in joints, hands and spine. the disease of cartilage
rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease
osteoarthritis common in most common in males before the age of 45. more common in females after the age of 55
osteoarthritis cartilage remodeling cartilage is static throughout life. what happens in OA is that cartilage martrix degrading enzymes are over-expressed
cervical region 7. C1- atlas and C2 – axis.
thoracic region 12 contains ribs
lumbar region 5
sacrum 5 (fused)
max curves on spinal column ear, shoulder, trunk, trochanter, knee, ankle
development of a curvy spine fetal has one large curve at 2 months but it begins to become curvy as they large to walk. also called compression curves
lordosis preggo women now they got an ass. helps with the transfer of weight over the hips
kyphosis hump back. abnormal AP curvature of the thoracic spine
scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
anterior longitudinal ligamer connects anterior bodies
Posterior longitudinal ligament connects posterior bodies
Ligamentum flavur connects laminae
Interspinous ligament connects spinous processes
Supraspinous ligament connects tips of spinous processes (C7, to sacrum)
Ligamentum nuchae continues supraspinous ligament (C7 to skull)
Angular motion forward, backwards and side to side
Circumduction able to spin, not vertical
Rotation spin on a vertical axis
Linear motion slide the point forward or backware from side to side or diagonally
Gliding joint glides on a single plane but is a very slight movement
Hinge joint able to move in one direction
Condylar joint able to move up or down, depression or recession
Saddle joint looks like a saddle, able to move in some directions
Pivot joint monoaxial rotation
Ball and socket like your shoulder
Flexion reduces angle
Extension increases angle
Adduction to move towards midline
Abduction to move away from midline
Hyperextension extension beyond anatomical position
Inversion twists sole of foot medially
Eversion twists sole of foot laterally
Dorsiflexion flexion at ankle (lifting toes)
Plantar flexion extension at ankle (pointing toes)
Opposition thumb movement towards fingers or palm (grasping)
Reposition opposite of opposition
Protraction moves anteriorly, in the horizontal plane (pushing forward)
Retraction opposite of protraction, moving anteriorly (pulling back)
Elevation moves in superior direction (up)
Depression moves in inferior direction (down)
Lateral flexion bends vertebral column from side to side
bulging disc vs herniated disc bulding occurs first and herniated disc is when it actually tears. nucleus pulpus can pinch the nerve.
why is a herniated disc difficult to get the anulus fiborsus is touch and requires lots of damge
bisphosphonates do what do the bones only fills in the pits in bones
calitonin inhibits what osteoclasts activity used to close osteoporosis
what type of scan can show soft tissue detail MRI used for ACL tears
what is a strain not fully torn

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