Astronomy Ch. 10. 36-57

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Which of the following best describes rain on Venus? it has sulfuric acid rain in its atmosphere, but the drops evaporate before hitting the surface
Why does Mars have more extreme seasons than Earth? because it has a more eccentric orbit in addition to its tilt
Where is most of the water on Mars? in its polar caps and subsurface ground ice
Which of the following is not one of the four major factors that can cause a long-term change in a planet's climate? a change in the strength of the planet's magnetic field
What is the main reason mountaintops are so cold? mountaintops are above much of the greenhouse gas in the atmosphere
Why isn't Earth's atmosphere mostly hydrogen? light gases such as hydrogen move faster than heavier gases and escape from earth's gravitational field
The atmosphere on Mercury is due to bombardment
Why is Mars red? its surface rocks were rusted by oxygen
Venus may have started with an ocean's worth of water. Where is its water now? the water was lost when ultraviolet light broke apart water molecules and the hydrogen escaped to space
Deuterium is more abundant on Venus than elsewhere in the solar system. What do we think this fact tells us about Venus? it once had huge amounts of water in its atmosphere
Which of the following is not a product of out gassing? oxygen
Which of the following statements about the greenhouse effect is true? all of the above
Why does the burning of fossil fuels increase the greenhouse effect on Earth? burning releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
Why would the weather become more severe as the greenhouse effect increased? warming would increase the evaporation of the oceans, leading to more water in the atmosphere and more frequent and severe storms
Of the four gases CO2, H2O, N2, and O2, which are greenhouse gases? CO2 and H20
Earth's atmosphere contains only small amounts of carbon dioxide because carbon dioxide dissolves in water and most of it is now contained in the oceans and carbonate rocks
What are oxidation reactions? reactions that remove oxygen from the atmosphere such as fire and rust
What are fossil fuels? the carbon-rich remains of plants that died millions of years ago
If Earth were to warm up a bit, what would happen? Carbonate materials would form in the oceans more rapidly, the atmospheric CO2 content would decrease, and the greenhouse effect would weaken slowly over time.
The most recent ice age ended about 10,000 years ago
Geological evidence points to a history of extended ice ages in Earth's history. How did Earth recover from this snowball phase? Volcanoes continued to inject CO2 into Earth's atmosphere, increasing the greenhouse effect to the point where ice melted.
From where did the molecular oxygen in Earth's atmosphere originate? photosynthesis from single-celled organisms

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