Ch 11: ANS Autonmic Nervous System

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Term Definition
Effectors type of control neural pathway (SNS) SNS- skeletal muscles, mainly voluntary. One motor neuron extends from CNS and synapses directly with a skeletal muscle fiber.
Action of Neurotransmitter (SNS) SNS- Acetylcholine, always excitatory (causing contraction of skeletal muscle).
Effectors type of control neural pathway (ANS) ANS- Cardiac muscle, smooth muscles, and glands, mainly involuntary. One motor neuron extends from the CNS and synapses with another motor in a ganglion; Second motor neuron synapses with an autonomic effector.
Action of neurotransmitter (ANS) ANS- may be excitatory (causing contraction of smooth muscle, increased heart rate, increased force of heart contraction or secretions from glands) or inhibitory (relaxation of smooth muscle, decrease heart rate/secretions)
Sympathetic Responses During physical or emotional stress, high sympathetic support vigorous physical activity and rapid production of ATP. Reduces body storage of energy. Division and release of hormone result in a series of physiological responses (fight or flight)
Parasympathetic Responses In contrast to fight or flight activities of the sympathetic division, the parasympathetic enhances the rest and digest activities. Support body functions that conserve and restore body energy during times of rest and recovery.
Autonomic Dysreflexia An exaggerated response of the sympathetic division in the ANS that occurs in about 85% of individuals with SCI at or above T6.
Raynaud Phenomenon Fingers or toes become ischemic (lack blood) after exposure to cold or with emotional stress. Condition due to excessive sympathetic stimulation.

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