Chapter 14

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Term Definition
Holy Land the region where the site of the Holy Temple of the Jews was located and where Jesus had lived and taught.
Pope Urban II Leader of the Roman Catholic Church who asked European Christians to take up arms against Muslims, starting the Crusades.
Crusades a series of religious wars launched by European Christians in the Middle Ages.
Saladin Muslim sultan who overthrew the Seljuk Turks and drove the Christians out of Jerusalem, leading to the Third Crusade.
Richard the Lion-Hearted King of England who led forces against the army of Saladin during the Third Crusade.
Hanseatic League a group of cities and towns in northern Germany that worked together to promote and protect trade.
Credit the promise of later payment for goods bought.
Guilds trade organizations in which all members set standards and prices for their products.
Apprentice someone who spent several years with a skilled crafter to learn basic skills of the craft.
Journeyman a person who has learned the basics of a career as an apprentice but is still learning from masters and has not yet opened his own shop.
Gothic building style that used advances in engineering to make churches taller and brighter than earlier churches.
Flying Buttresses supports that helped hold up church walls from the outside, allowing for much higher ceilings and an interior that had no columns.
Illumination the process of decorating a written manuscript with pictures or designs.
Hildegard of Bingen a famous medieval nun who was both a poet and a composer.
Troubadours wandering singers who performed epics and romances.
Geoffrey Chaucer English author of the Canterbury Tales.
Dante Alighieri Italian author of the Divine Comedy.
Thomas Aquinas influential scholar who argued that classical ideas could be used to improve people's understanding of Christian teachings.
Scholasticism a combination of Christian faith and rational thought set forth by Aquinas.
Heresy beliefs that oppose the church's official teachings.
Inquisitions legal procedures supervised by special judges who tried suspected heretics.
Friars members of religious orders who took vows of poverty and obedience and lived among the people to whom they preached.
Hundred Years' War a war between Britain and France that began as a dispute over the throne of France.
Joan of Arc peasant girl who led the French into battle during the Hundred Years' War and won several victories before she was captured, tried, and executed by the British.
Wars of the Roses conflict between the York and Lancaster families for the English throne.
Henry VII nobleman whose rise to king ended the Wars of the Roses and started a new era in English history.
Black Death a devastating plague that swept across Europe between 1347 and 1351.

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