Chapter 9 1-25

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Question Answer
Rank the five terrestrial worlds in order of size from smallest to largest: Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus, Earth
What is differentiation in a planetary geology? the process by which gravity separates materials according to density
Under what circumstances can differentiation occur in a planet? the planet must have a molten interior
When we say that a liquid has a high viscosity, we mean that it flows slowly like honey
The core, mantle, and crust of a planet are defined by differences in their composition
The lithosphere of a planet is the layer that consists of the rigid rocky material of the crust and uppermost portion of the mantle
What is the most important factor that determines the thickness, and therefore strength, of the lithosphere? internal temperature
The terrestrial planet cores contain mostly metal because metals sank to the center during a time when the interiors were molten throughout
Which internal energy source produces heat by converting gravitational potential energy into thermal energy? both A and B
Which internal energy source is the most important in continuing to heat the the terrestrial planets today? radioactivity
Which of the following best describes convection? it is the process in which warm material expands and rises while cool material contracts and falls
What are the circumstances under which convection can occur in a substance? when the substance is strongly heated from underneath
The three principal sources of internal heat of terrestrial planets are accretion, differentiation, and radioactivity
The main process by which heat flows upward through the lithosphere is conduction
Heat escapes from a planet's surface into space by thermal radiation. Planets radiate almost entirely in the wavelength range of the infrared
Which of the following worlds have the thinnest lithosphere? Earth and Venus
Which of the following best describes why the smaller terrestrial worlds have cooler interiors than the larger ones? They have relatively more surface area compared to the their volumes
Which of the terrestrial worlds has the strongest magnetic field? Earth
Why does Earth have the strongest magnetic field among the terrestrial worlds? It is the only that has both a partially molten metallic core and reasonably rapid rotation
Which of the following most likely explains why Venus does not have a strong magnetic field? its rotation is too slow
What are the conditions necessary for a terrestrial planet to have a strong magnetic field? both a molten metallic core and reasonably fast rotation
Which of the following has virtually no effect on the structure of a planet? its magnetic field
Which two properties are most important in determining the surface temperature of a planet? distance from the Sun and atmosphere
Which of the following does not have a major effect in shaping planetary surfaces? magnetism
How large is an impact crater compared to the size of the impactor? 10 times larger

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