Civil War vocab

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Compromise of 1850 Compromise between the North and South that allowed California to enter the union in exchange for the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act
Dred Scot Case (1857) – Supreme Court ruling that declared slaves were not citizens of the United States.
Election of 1860 Election where Abraham Lincoln defeated three opponents to win the presidency; upon Lincoln’s election Southern states seceded from the Union
Free States States where slavery was not legal.
Fugitive Slave Act (1850) – Act that required runaway slaves to be returned to their masters if caught anywhere in the United States
Georgia Platform Position supported by several prominent Georgia politicians who supported the Compromise of 1850.
Abraham Lincoln (1809 – 1865) – The 16th president of the United States, Lincoln preserved the Union during the U.S. Civil War and brought about the emancipation of slaves
Missouri Compromise (1820) – Compromise that brought Missouri into the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state; in addition, Congress banned slavery north of the 36?20’ line of latitude.
Nullification The act of making legally null and void
Secession The act of separating from a nation or state and becoming independent; the withdrawal of eleven southern states from the Union in 1860, leading to the Civil War
Slave States States where slavery was legal
Slavery Involuntary servitude of African-Americans or Blacks in the United States from 1619-1865
States’ Rights The belief that a state’s sovereignty is more important than that of the national government.
Alexander Stephens (1812-1873) – Important Georgia politician who was a U.S. Senator, Georgia Governor, and Vice-President of the Confederate States of America (C.S.A.).
Anaconda Plan/ Union Blockade Union strategy during the Civil War which incorporated a plan to blockade Southern ports and capture the Mississippi River. It was called the Anaconda Plan as the strategy resembled an anaconda squeezing its prey to death
Andersonville Infamous Civil War prisoner-of-war camp in Macon County, Georgia. Over 13,000 Union soldiers died in the camp
Atlanta Campaign battles West. Theater of the American Civil War in NW GA & area around Atlanta during summer of 1864; a Union military campaign led by William T. Sherman from 5/1864-9/1864 with Atl. ultimate objective; His army marched Chattanooga – At. In Battle of Dal
Battle of Chickamauga (September 18-20, 1863) – Confederate victory; largest battle fought in Georgia; led to the battle of Chattanooga
Blockade Runners Private Southern ships that attempted to “break” the Union blockade and trade cotton with European countries for manufactured goods
Emancipation Proclamation Document that declared all slaves in the rebellious states would be freed if the South did not return to the Union by January 1, 1863.
March to the Sea Union military campaign led by William T. Sherman from November 15-December 25, 1864 with Savannah being the ultimate objective; more importantly Sherman used a “scorched earth” policy to end the South’s will to fight
General William T. Sherman (1820–1891) – A U.S. Civil War Union Army leader known for "Sherman's March," in which he and his troops laid waste to Georgia and other Southern states.
13th Amendment (1865) – Ended slavery in the United States.
15th Amendment (1870) – Gave African-American or Black men the right to vote.
14th Amendment (1868 – Gave African-Americans or Blacks United States citizenship
Black Codes Laws created by Southern legislatures during Reconstruction that took away the civil rights of freedmen.
Congressional Reconstruction (1866-1867) – Reconstruction period where Congress took responsibility for bringing the South back into the Union
Military Reconstruction (1867-1877) – Reconstruction period where the military took responsibly for bringing the South back into the Union; the South was divided into military districts
Ratify to pass
Repeal To revoke or withdraw formally or officially; usually refers to a law
Freedman’s Bureau Federal agency created in 1865 to provide aid to former slaves (freedmen).
Ku Klux Klan Terrorist organization created to intimidate and prevent freedmen and Republicans from gaining political power in the South.
Sharecropping Farmers who agreed to work on a landowner’s property in exchange for land, farming equipment, and seed; sharecroppers were required to provide the land owner with a share of the crop
Tenant Farming Farmers who agreed to work on a landowner’s property were required to provide the landowner with a share of the crop; unlike sharecroppers, tenant farmers usually owned their own farming equipment.

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