CNA Vocabulary From Successful Nursing Assistant Care

Print this FlashCard
Question Answer
accountable answerable for one's actions
activities of daily living (ADLs) personal care tasks, including bathing, dressing, mouth care, hair care, toileting, and eating and drinking.
acute care 24-hour skilled care for temporary illnesses or injuries, generally given in hospitals and ambulatory surgical centers.
adaptive devices special equipment that helps a person who is ill or disabled perform ADLs, also called assistive devices.
adult daycare care given to adults at a facility during daytime work hours.
assisted living a setting for people who require some help with daily care, but who need less care than a long-term care facility offers.
care team the group of people with different kinds of education and experience who provide resident care.
chain of command the order of authority within a facility.
chronic the term for an illness that is long-term or long-lasting.
cite to find a problem through a survey.
CHAPTER 3 Communication Skills
active listening a way of communicating that involves giving a person your full attention while he is speaking and encouraging him to give information and clarify ideas; includes nonverbal communication
barrier a block or an obstacle
body language all of the conscious or unconscious messages your body sends as you communicate, such as facial expressions, shrugging your shoulders, and wringing your hands
care conference a meeting to share and gather information about residents in order to develop a care plan
care plan a written plan for each resident created by the nurse; outlines the steps taken by the staff to help the resident reach his or her goals.
chart written legal record of all care received within a facility
charting the act of noting care and observations; documenting
code when a group of specially-trained staff is called to provide advanced life support to a resident
code status whether a resident has a signed advance directive or not
critical thinking the process of reasoning and analyzing in order to solve problems; for the nursing assistant, critical thinking means making good observations and promptly reporting all potential problems
culture a set of learned beliefs, values, traditions, and behaviors shared by a social, ethnic, or age group
edema swelling in body tissues caused by excess fluid
incident an accident, problem, or unexpected event during the course of care
incident report a written report documenting the incident and the response to the incedent
Minimum Data Set (MDS) a detailed form with guidelines for assessing residents in nursing homes; also details what to do if resident problems are identified
nonverbal communication communication without words, such as gestures and facial expressions
nursing process an organized method used by nurses to determine residents' needs, plan the appropriate care to meet those needs, and evaluate how well the plan of care is working; five steps are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation
prefix a word part added to the beginning of a root to create a new meaning
prioritize to place things in order of importance
objective information factual information collected using the senses of sight, hearing, smell, and touch; also called signs
root the main part of the word that gives it meaning
rounds physical movement of staff from room to room to discuss each resident and the plans of care
sentinel event an unexpected occurrentc involving death or serious physical or psychological injury
subjective information information collected from residents, their family members and friends; information may or may not be true but is what the person reported; also called symptoms
suffix a word part added to the end of a root or a prefix to create a new meaning
verbal communication communication involving the use of spoken or written words or sounds
vital signs measurements that monitor the function of the vital organs of the body
CHAPTER 5 Diversity and Human Needs and Development
ageism stereotyping of, prejudice toward, and/or discrimination against the elderly
agnostic a person who claims that he does not know or cannot know if God exists
atheist a person who claims that there is no God
Buddhism a religion that follows the teachings of Buddha
Christianity a religion that follows the teachings of Jesus Christ
cultural diversity the variety of people living and working together in the world
developmental disability a chronic condition that restricts physical or mental abilities
health state of physical, mental, and social well-being
Hinduism a religion that believes in the unity of everything and that all are a part of God
Islam a religion that follows the prophet Muhammad and the Five Pillars of Islam.
Judaism a religion that follows the teachings of God as given to Moses in laws and commandments
mores the accepted traditional customs of a particular social group
need something necessary or required
psychosocial needs needs which involve social interaction, emotions, intellect, and spirituality
puberty the period when a person develops secondary sex characteristics
religion a set of beliefs and practices followed by a group of people
spirituality of or relating to the concerns of the spirit, the sacred, or the soul
stereotype a biased generalization about a group that is usually based on opinions and ditorted ideas
wellness successfully balancing things that happen in everyday life; includes five different types: physical, social, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual
CHAPTER 7 Safety and Body Mechanics
aspiration inhaling food or drink into the lungs
atrophy weakening or wasting of muscles
body mechanics the way the parts of the body work together when you move
chemical restraint medications used to control a person's behavior
combustion the process of burning
cyanosis blue or pale skin and/or mucous membranes due to decreased oxygen in the blood
disorientation confusion about person, place and time
dysphagia difficulty in swallowing
flammable easily ignited and capable of burning quickly
hoarding collecting and putting things away in a guarded way
Material Satety Data Sheet (MSDS) sheets that provide information on the safe use, hazards, and emergency steps to take when using chemicals
PASS acronym for use of a fire extinguisher; stands for Pull-Aim-Squeeze-Sweep
postural support device that maintains good posture or body alignment; also considered a restraint
protective device another word for a physical restraint or postural support
RACE acronym for steps taken during a fire; stands for Remove-Activate-Contain-Extinguish
restraint a physical or chemical way to restrict voluntary movement or behavior
restraint alternatives measures used instead of physical or chemical restraints
restraint-free care an environment in which restraints are not kept or used for any reason
scalds burns caused by very hot liquids
slip knot a special quick-release knot used to tie restraints
suffocation death from a lack of air or oxygen
synthetic artificial or man-made
CHAPTER 9 Admission, Transfer, Discharge, and Physical Exams
abdominal girth a measurement of the circumference around the abdomen at the umbilicus (navel)
admission the initial entry of a resident into a facility or a unit
admission pack personal care items supplied upon a resident's admission
baseline initial value that can be compared to future measurements
bedridden confined to bed
contracture the permanent and often painful shortening of a muscle, usually due to a lack of activity
discharge a doctor's order that releases a resident to leave a facility to go home or to another facility
dorsal recumbent position with the person flat on her back with knees flexed and slightly separated; feet are flat on bed
kilogram 1000 grams; 1 kilogram =2.2 pounds
knee-chest position with the person lying on his abdomen with knees pulled up towards the abdomen and with legs separated; arms are pulled up and flexed; the head is turned to one side
lithotomy position with the person on her back with her hips at the edge of the exam table; legs are flexed and feet are in padded stirrups
metric system of weights and measures based upon the meter
pound measurement of weight equal to 16 ounces
transfer an order that moves a resident from one unit to another within the same facility
CHAPTER 11 Positioning, Moving, and Lifting
ambulation walking
body alignment body positioning that promotes proper body functioning; posture
dangling position with the resident sitting up with the feet over the side of the bed to regain balance, equalize blood flow in the body, and return blood flow to the head; helps prevent dizziness and lightheadedness that can cause fainting
draw sheet turning sheet that is placed under residents who are unable to assist with turning, lifting, or moving up in bed
ergonomics the science of designing equipment and setting up areas to make them safer and to suit the worker's abilities
Fowler's position with the person lying on his or her back with the head of bed elevated about 45 to 60 degrees
gait belt a belt made of canvas or other heavy material used to help residents walk; also called a transfer belt
lateral position with person on his or her side
logrolling moving a person as a unit, without disturbing the alignment of the body
mechanical lift special equipment used to lift and move or lift and weigh a person
MSD's acronym that stands for work-related musculoskeletal disorders
positioning helping people into positions that will be comfortable and healthy for them
prone position with person lying on his or her stomach
shearing rubbing or friction resulting from the skin moving one way and the bone underneath it remaining fixed or moving in the opposite direction
Sims' position with person lying on his or her left side with one leg drawn up
supine position with person lying flat on his or her back
transfer moving a resident from one place to another
transfer belt a belt made of canvas or other heavy material used to assist residents who are weak, unsteady, or uncoordinated; also called a gait belt
CHAPTER 1 Continued
conscientious guided by a sense of right and wrong; principled
continuity of care coordination of care for a resident over time, during which the care team is always exchanging information about the resident and working toward shared goals
courteous polite, kind, considerate
delegation transferring authority to a person for a specific task
dementia the loss of mental abilities, such as thinking, remembering, reasoning and communicating
diagnosis the identification of a disease by its signs and symptoms and from the results of different tests
empathetic identifying with and understanding another person's feelings
first impression a way of classifying or categorizing people at the first meeting
functional nursing method of care assigning specific tasks to each team member
holistic care that involves the whole person; this includes his or her physical, social, emotional and spiritual needs
home health care care that takes place in a person's home
hospice care care for people who have six months or less to live
inter-generational care mixing children and the elderly in the same care setting
Joint Commission a not-for-profit organization that evaluates and accredits different types of healthcare facilities
length of stay the number of days a person stays in a health care facility
liability a legal term that means a person can be held responsible for harming someone else
licensed practical nurse (LPN) or licensed vocational nurse (LVN) licensed nurse who has completed one to two years of education; LPN/LVN passes medications, gives treatments and may supervise daily care of residents
long-term care 24-hour care provided usually in nursing homes for people with ongoing conditions
nurse practitioner a registered nurse with advanced education who is able to see patients and write prescriptions
nursing assistant an important member of the care team who performs assigned nursing tasks and gives personal care
outpatient care treatment given usually for less than 24 hours to people who have had treatments or surgery
pet therapy the practice of bringing pets into a facility or home to provide stimulation or companionship
policy a course of action to be followed
primary nursing method of care in which a registered nurse gives much of the daily care to residents
procedure a method, or way, of doing something
professionalism the act of behaving properly for a certain job
registered nurse (RN) a licensed nurse who has completed two to four years of education; RNs assess residents, monitor progress, provide skilled nursing care, give treatments and supervise the care given by nursing assistants and other members of the care team
rehabilitation a program of care given by a specialist to restore or improve function after an illness or injury
resident a person living in a long-term care facility
resident-focused care method of care in which the resident is the primary focus; team members are cross-trained in skills, allowing residents to see many of the same people performing their care
sandwich generation people responsible for the care of both their children and aging relatives
skilled care medically necessary care given by a skilled nurse or therapist
subacute care care given in a nursing home or a hospital; used for people who need a higher level of care and observation than some long-term care facilities can give
team leader a nurse in charge of a group of residents for one shift of duty
team nursing method of caring in which a nurse acts as a leader of a group of people giving care
trustworthy deserving the trust of others
CHAPTER 13 Vital Signs
apical pulse the pulse on the left side of the chest, just below the nipple
apnea the absence of breathing may be temporary
BPM the abbreviation for "beats per minute"
brachial pulse the pulse inside the elbow; used to measure blood pressure
bradycardia a slow heart rate; under 60 beats per minute
Celsius the centigrade temperature scale in which the boiling point of water is 100 degrees and the freezing point of water is 0 degrees
Cheyne-Stokes respiration type of respiration with periods of apnea lasting at least 10 seconds, along with alternating periods of slow, irregular respirations or rapid, shallow respirations
diastolic second measurement of blood pressure; phase when the heart relaxes
dilate to widen
dyspnea difficulty breathing
eupnea normal respirations
expiration the process of exhaling air out of the lungs
Fahrenheit a temperature scale where the boiling point of water is 212 degrees and the freezing point of water is 32 degrees
hypertension high blood pressure
hypothermia low blood pressure
hypothermia a condition in which body temperature drops below the level required for normal functioning; severe sub-normal body temperature
inspiration the process of inhaling air into the lungs
orthopnea shortness of breath when lying down that is relieved by sitting up
orthostatic hypotension a sudden drop in blood pressure that occurs when a person stands up; also called postural hypotension
prehypertension a condition in which a person has a systolic measurement of 120-139mm Hg and a diastolic measurement of 80-89mm Hg; indicator that the person does not have high blood pressure now but is likely to have it in the future
radial pulse the pulse on the inside of the wrist, where the radial artery runs just beneath the skin
respiration the process of inhaling air into the lungs (inspiration) and exhaling air out of the lungs (expiration)
sphygmomanometer a device that measures blood pressure
stethoscope an instrument used to hear sounds in the human body, such as the heartbeat or pulse, breathing sounds, or bowel sounds
systolic first measurement of blood pressure; phase when the heart is at work, contracting and pushing blood out of the left ventricle
tachycardia a fast heartbeat, over 100 beats per minute
tachypnea rapid respirations
thermometer a device used for measuring the degree of heat or cold
vital signs measurements that monitor the function of the vital organs of the body
CHAPTER 15 The Gastrointestinal System
absorption the digestive process in which digestive juices and enzymes break down food into materials the body can use
anal incontinence an inability to control the muscles of the bowels, which leads to an involuntary passage of stool or gas; also called fecal incontinence
anatomy the study of body structure
biology the tudy of all life forms
body systems groups of organs that perform specific functions in the human body
bowel elimination the physical process of releasing or emptying the colon or large intestine of stool or feces
cells the basic structural unit of all organisms
chyme semi-liquid substance made as a result of the chemical breakdown of food in the stomach
colon the large intestine
colostomy surgically-created opening into the large intestine to allow feces to be expelled; causes stool to be semi-solid
constipation the difficult and often painful elimination of a hard, dry stool
Crohn's disease a disease that causes the wall of the intestines (large or small) to become inflamed (red, sore and swollen)
defecation the process of eliminating feces from the rectum through the anus
diarrhea frequent elimination of liquid or semi-liquid feces
digestion the process of breaking down food so that it can be absorbed into the cells
diverticulitis inflammation of sacs that develop in the wall of the large intestine due to diverticulosis
diverticulosis a disorder in which sac-like pouchings develop in weakened areas of the wall of the large intestine (colon)
duodenum the first part of the small intestine where the common bile duct enters the small intestine
electrolytes chemical substances that are essential to maintaining fluid balance and homeostasis in the body
elimination the process of expelling wastes
enema a specific amount of water, with or without an additive, introduced into the colon to stimulate stool
fecal impaction a mass of dry, hard stool that remains packed in the rectum and cannot be expelled
feces solid body waste excreted through the anus from the large intestine; also called stool
flatulence air in the intestine that is passed through the rectum, also called gas or flatus
fracture pan a bedpan that is flatter than a regular bedpan; used for small or thin people or those who cannot lift their buttocks onto a standard bedpan
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) a chronic condition in which the liquid contents of the stomach back up into the esophagus
gastrointestinal tract a continuous tube from the opening of the mouth all the way to the anus, where solid wastes are eliminated from the body
heartburn a condition that results from a weakening of the sphincter muscle which joins the esophagus and the stomach; also known as acid reflux
hemorrhoids enlarged veins in the rectum that can cause itching, burning, pain, and bleeding
homeostasis the condition in which all of the body's systems are balanced and are working at their best
ileostomy surgically-created opening into the end of the small intestine, the ileum, to allow feces to be expelled; causes stool to be liquid
ingestion the process of taking food or fluids into the body
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) a chronic condition of the gastrointestinal tract that is worsened by stress
lactose intolerance the inability to digest lactose, a type of sugar in milk and other dairy products
malabsorption a condition in which the body cannot absorb or digest a particular nutrient properly
occult hidden
organ a structural unit in the human body that performs a specific function
ostomy surgical creation of an opening from an area inside the body to the outside
pathophysiology the study of the disorders that occur in the body
peristalsis muscular contractions that push food through the gastrointestinal tract
physiology the study of how body parts function
portable commode a chair with a toilet seat and a removable container underneath
specimen a sample, such as of tissue, blood, urine, stool, or sputum, used for analysis and diagnosis
stoma an artificial opening in the body
suppository a medication given rectally to cause a bowel movement
tissues a group of cells that performs similar tasks
ulcerative colitis a chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine
ureterostomy a type of urostomy in which a surgical creation of an opening from the ureter through the abdomen is made for urine to be eliminated
urostomy the general term used for any surgical procedure that diverts the passage of urine by re-directing the ureters
CHAPTER 2 Ethical and Legal Issues
abuse purposely causing physical, mental or emotional pain or injury to someone
active neglect purposely harming a person physically, mentally or emotionally by failing to provide needed care
advance directives written documents or oral statements that allow people to decide what kind of medical care they wish to have if they are unable to make those decisions themselves
assault threatening to harm a person or leading a person to feel threatened that he or she will be touched without his or her permission
battery the actual touching of another person without their permission
civil law private law; law between individuals
criminal law public law; related to committing a crime against the community
DNR (do-not resuscitate) an order that tells medical professionals not to perform CPR
domestic violence abuse by spouses, intimate partners or family members; can be physical, sexual or emotional
Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care a signed, dated and witnessed paper that appoints someone to make medical decisions for a person in the event he becomes unable to do so
ethics the knowledge of what is right and wrong; standards of conduct
etiquette the code of proper behavior and courtesy in a certain setting
false imprisonment unlawfully restraining or confining someone against his or her will
HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) law passed to protect the privacy of health information and to facilitate the transferring of protected health information (PHI) for payment and insurance needs
invasion of privacy a violation of the right to be left alone and the right to control personal information
involuntary seclusion confinement or separation from others in a physical space; done without consent or against one's will
laws rules set by the government to help protect the public
Living Will a document that states the medical care a person wants, or doesn't want, in case he or she becomes unable to make those decisions
malpractice a negligent or improper act by a doctor or other medical professional that results in damage or injury to a person
mandated reporters people who are required to report suspected or observed abuse or neglect due to their regular contact with vulnerable populations, such as the elderly in nursing homes
misappropriation the act of taking what belongs to someone else and using it illegally for one's own gain
NATCEP (Nurse Aide Training and Competency Evaluation Program) part of OBRA that sets minimum requirements for nursing assistants for training and testing
negligence actions, or a failure to act or give care, that results in injury to a person
OBRA (Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act) law originally passed in 1987; includes minimum standards for nursing assistant training, staffing requirements, resident assessment instructions and information on rights for residents
ombudsman person assigned by law as the legal advocate for residents
passive neglect unintentionally harming a person physically, mentally or emotionally by failing to provide needed care
physical abuse intentional or unintentional treatment that causes harm or injury to a person's body
Protected Health Information (PHI) information that can be used to identify a person and relates to the patient's past present or future physical or mental condition, including any healthcare that patient has had, or payment for that health care
psychological abuse harming a person by threatening, scaring, insulting, humiliating or treating him or her as a child; also includes verbal abuse
Residents' council a group of residents who meet regularly to discuss issues related to the nursing home
Residents' Rights rights identified by OBRA for residents in long-term care facilities; purpose is to inform residents of their rights within these facilities and to provide an ethical code of conduct for healthcare workers
scope of practice the tasks that nursing assistants are permitted to perform as allowed by state or federal law
sexual abuse forcing a person to perform or participate in sexual acts against his or her will
sexual harassment any unwelcome sexual advance or behavior that creates an intimidating, hostile or offensive working environment
substance abuse the use of drugs, cigarettes or alcohol in a way that harms oneself or others
verbal abuse oral or written words, pictures or gestures that threaten or embarrass a person
workplace violence the abuse of staff by other staff members, residents or visitors; includes both physical and verbal abuse
CHAPTER 4 Communication Challenges
airway the natural passageway for air to enter into the lungs
anxiety uneasiness; often about a situation or condition
artificial airway any plastic, metal or rubber device inserted into the respiratory tract for the purpose of maintaining ventilation
coma state of unconsciousness in which the person is unable to respond to any changes in the environment' including pain
combative violent or hostile
defense mechanisms unconscious behaviors used to release tension and/or to help cope with stress
depression an illness that causes social withdrawl, lack of energy and loss of interest in activities, as well as other symptoms
disorientation confusion about person, place or time; may be permanent or temporary
impairment a loss of function or ability: can be a partial or complete loss
masturbation to touch or rub sexual organs in order to give oneself or another person sexual pleasure
tracheostomy an opening through the neck into the trachea that is surgically created
CHAPTER 17 The Reproductive System
benign prostatic hypertrophy a disorder in which the prostate becomes enlarged, causing problems with unination and/or emptying the bladder
chlamydia a sexually-transmitted disease caused by bacteria
douche a rinsing of the vagina in order to cleanse the vaginal tract or to introduce medication into the vagina; also called a vaginal irrigation
genital herpes a sexually-transmitted desease caused by a virus; cannot be cured
genital HPV infection a sexually-transmitted disease caused by human pappillomavirus (HPV)
glands structures that secrete hormones
gonads the male and female sexual reproductive glands
gonorrhea a sexually-transmitted disease caused by bacteria
hormones chemical substances created by the body that control numerous body functions
impotence the inability to have or maintain a penile erection
menopause the point at which a woman's menstrual periods stop permanently and she can no longer conceive
menstruation the shedding of the lining of the uterus that occurs approximately every 28 days; also known as the menstrual cycle or period
ovum female sex cell or egg
sexually-transmitted diseases (STD's) diseases passed through sexual contact; also called venereal diseases
sexually-transmitted infections (STI's) infections caused by sexual contact; infected person may not show signs or symptoms of disease
sperm male sex cells
syphilis a sexually-transmitted disease caused by bacteria
trichomoniasis a sexually-transmitted disease caused by protozoa (single-celled animals)
vaginal irrigation a rinsing of the vagina in order to cleanse the vaginal tract or to introduce medication into the vagina; also called a douche
CHAPTER 19 The Circulatory or Cardiovascular System
anemia a condition in which the red blood cells or the hemoglobin in red blood cells is very low
angina pectoris chest pain
anti-embolic stockings special stockings used to help prevent swelling and blood clots and aid circulation;also called elastic stockings
artery vessel that carries blood away from the heart
atria the upper two chambers of the heart
capillaries tiny blood vessels in which the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products occurs between blood and cells
cardiomyopathy a condition in which the heart muscle is diseased and no longer pumps effectively
congestive heart failure (CHF) a condition in which the heart muscle is damaged and does not pump effectively; blood backs up into the heart instead of circulating; can occur on one or both sides of the heart
coronary artery disease (CAD) a condition in which blood vessels in the coronary arteries narrow, lowering blood supply to the heart and depriving it of oxygen and nurtrients
diastole phase when the heart muscle relaxes
dyspnea difficulty breathing
heart four-chambered pump that is responsible for the flow of blood in the body
heart attack a condition in which all or part of the blood flow to the heart is blocked and muscle cells die; also called a myocardial infarction
hypertension a condition in which blood pressure consistently measures 140/90 or higher; also known as high blood pressure
hypoxia a condition in which the body does not receive enough oxygen
ischemia a lack of blood supply to an area
myocardial infarction (MI) a condition in which all or part of the blood flow to the heart is blocked and muscle cells die; also called a heart attack
myocardial ischemia a condition in which the heart muscle does not receive enough blood and lacks oxygen; can cause angina pectoris
nitroglycerin medication that relaxes the walls of the coronary arteries
occlusion a complete obstruction of a blood vessel
orthopnea shortness of breath when lying down that is relieved by sitting up
peripheral vascular disease (PVD) a condition in which the legs, feet, arms or hands do not have enough blood circulation
phlebitis inflammation of the veins in the lower extremities
pulmonary edema a condition in which there is an accumulation of fluid in the lungs; usually due to heart failure
sequential compression device (SCD) special stockings used to improve circulation and prevent blood clots; may be applied during or after surgery
stable angina chest pain that occurs when a person is active or under severe stress
systole phase where the heart is at work, contracting and pushing blood out of the left ventricle
unstable angina (USA) chest pain that occurs while a person is at rest and not exerting himself
vein vessel that carries blood to the heart
ventricles the lower two chambers of the heart
CHAPTER 21 The Musculoskeletal System
abduction moving a body part away from the midline of the body
adduction moving a body part toward the midline of the body
amputation the surgical removal of an extremity
arthritis a general term that refers to inflammation of the joints
atrophy the wasting away, decreasing in size, and weakening of muscles from lask of use
bones rigid connective tissue that make up the skeleton; lend support to body structures, allow the body to move, and protect the organs
bursae tiny sacs of fluid that are located near joints and help reduce friction
bursitis a condition in which the bursae become inflamed and painful
cartilage the protective substance that covers the end of bones and makes up the discs that are found between vertebrae
contracture the permanent and painful stiffening of a muscle
flexion bending a body part
fracture a broken bone
full weight-bearing (FWB) the ability to support full body weight on both legs
joints the points where two bones meet; provide movement and flexibility
ligaments strong bands of fibrous connective tissue that connect bones and support the joints and joint movement
muscles groups of tissues that contract and relax, allowing motion, supporting the body, protecting organs, and creating heat
muscular dystrophy an inherited, progressive disease that causes a gradual wasting of muscle, weakness and deformity
non-weight-bearing (NWB) the inability to support any weight on one or both legs
osteoarthritis a type of arthritis that usually affects weight-bearing joints, especially the hips and knees; also called degenerative joint disease (DJD)
osteoporosis a condition in which the bones become brittle and weak; may be due to age, lack of hormones, not enough calcium in bones, or lack of exercise
partial weight-bearing (PWB) the ability to support some body weight on one or both legs
phantom limb pain pain in a limb (or extremity)that has been amputated
phantom sensation itching or tingling feeling from a body part that has been amputated
prosthesis a specially-fitted artificial body part that replaces a missing limb or extremity
rheumatoid arthritis a type of arthritis in which joints become red, swollen, and very painful; movement is restricted and deformities of the hands are common
tendons tough frbrous bands that connect muscle to bone
total hip replacement (THR) a surgery that replaces the head of the femur (long bone of the leg) where it joins the hip
total knee replacement (TKR) a surgery that replaces a damaged or painful knee with artificial parts
CHAPTER 6 Infection Control
antimicrobial an agent that destroys or resists pathogens
autoclave machine creating steam or a type of gas that kills all microorganisms
barrier block or obstacle, object(s) worn by health care providers to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases
biohazard container hard, leakproof containers into which sharp objects and items contaminated with infectious materials are placed
bloodborne pathogens microorganisms found in human blood that can cause infection and disease in humans
Bloodborne Pathogen Standard federal law requiring that healthcare facilities protect employees from bloodborne pathogens
body fluids tears, saliva, sputum(mucus coughed up), urine, feces semen, vaginal secretions and pus or other wound drainage
carrier person who carries a pathogen without signs or symptoms of an illness or disease and who can spread the disease
catheter tube inserted through the skin or a body opening: used to add or drain fluid
C. difficile (C. diff, clostridium difficile) a bacterial illness that can cause diarrhea and colitis; spread by spores that are difficult to kill
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) federal government agency responsible for improving the overall health and safety of the people of the United States
clean a condition in which an object has not been contaminated with pathogens
clean technique process of removing pathogens; also called medical asepsis
communicable disease disease transmitted when a pathogen is spread from one person to another
contagious disease a communicable disease that is spread easily from one person to another
contaminated soiled, unclean; having disease-causing organisms or infectious material on it
cross-infection acquiring an infection from someone else; also called cross-contamination
dehydration a condition that occurs when a person does not have enough fluid in the body
direct contact way to transmit pathogens through touching the infected person or his or her secretions
direct spread method of transmission of disease from one person to another
dirty a condition in which an object is contaminated with pathogens
disinfection a measure used to decrease the spread of pathogens and disease by destroying pathogens
drainage flow of fluids from a wound or cavity
exposure control plan plan that identifies the step-by-step method of what to do if exposed to infectious material;also includes specific work practices that must be followed
exposure incident situation that occurs when a person is exposed to infectious blood or material
fomite an object that is contaminated with a pathogen and can now spread the pathogen to another person
hand hygiene handwashing with either plain or antiseptic soap and water and using alcohol-based hand rubs
healthcare-associated infection (HAI) an infection associated with various healthcare settings, such as long-term care facilities, hospitals, ambulatory settings and home care
hepatitis inflammation of the liver caused by infection
immunity resistance to infection by a specific pathogen
incubation period the period of time between the time a pathogen enters the body and the time it causes an infection
indirect contact a way to transmit pathogens by touching something contaminated by the infected person
infection the state resulting from pathogens invading and growing within the human body
infection control set of methods used to control and prevent the spread of disease
infectious disease any disease caused by the growth of a pathogen
isolate to keep something separate, or by itself
localized infection infection limited to a specific part of the body; has local symptoms
malnutrition a serious condition in which a person is not getting proper nutrition
medical asepsis process of removing pathogens, also called clean technique
microbe a tiny living thing visible only by microscope, also called a microorganism
microorganism (MO) a tiny living thing visible only by microscope, also called a microbe
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) infection an infection caused by bacteria that are resistant to many antibiotics; can develop when people do not take all of the medication prescribed to them
mucous membranes the membranes that line body cavities that open to the outside of the body, such as the linings of the mouth, nose, eyes, rectum and genitals
multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) microorganisms, mostly bacteria, that are resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents
non-communicable disease a disease not capable of being spread from one person to another
non-intact skin skin that is broken by abrasions, cuts, rashes, acne, pimples, lesions, surgical incisions or boils
normal flora the microorganisms that normally live in and on the body and do not cause harm in a healthy person
nosocomial infection an infection acquired in a hospital
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) a federal government agency that makes rules to protect workers from hazards on the job
pathogen the microorganisms that cause disease
perineal care care of the genitals and anal area by cleansing
PPE (personal protective equipment) a barrier between a person and disease; includes, gloves, gowns, masks, goggles and face shields
reinfection being infected a second time with an infection
resistance the body's ability to prevent infection and disease
sanitation ways communities maintain clean, hygienic conditions that help prevent disease, such as disposal of sewage and solid waste
Standard Precautions a method of infection controlin which all blood, body fluids, non-intact skin and mucous membranes are treated as if they were infected with a disease
sterilization a measure used to decrease the spread of pathogens and disease by destroying all microorganisms, including pathogens
surgical asepsis method that makes an area or an object completely free of microorganisms; also called sterile technique
systemic infection an infection that occurs when pathogens enter the bloodstream and move throughout the body; causes general systems, such as chills and fever
transmission transfer of a disease
vaccine a substance prepared from weakened or killed microbes that is used to give immunity to a disease
VRE (vancomycin-resistant enterococcus) a mutant strain of the bacterium enterococcus; a resistance caused by a person not taking all of a powerful antibiotic Vancomycin
CHAPTER 8 Emergency Care, First aid and Disasters
abdominal thrusts the method of attempting to remove an object from the airway of someone who is choking
cardiac arrest the medical term for the stopping of the heartbeat
code team group of people chosen for a particular shift who respond to resident emergencies
conscious the state of being mentally alert and having awareness of surroundings, sensations and thoughts
CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) refers to medical procedures used when a person's heart or lungs have stopped working
diabetic ketoacidosis a life-threatening complication of diabetes that can result from undiagnosed diabetes, not enough insulin, eating too much, not getting enough exercise and stress; also known as ketoacidosis or hyperglycemia
dyspnea difficulty breathing
emesis the medical term for vomiting or vomitus
epitaxis the medical term for a nosebleed
expressive aphasia inability to express needs to others through speech or written words
fainting loss of consciousness; also called syncope
first aid care given by the first people to respond to an emergency
hemiparesis weakness on one side of the body
hemiplegia paralysis on one side of the body
hyperglycemia a life-threatening complication of diabetes that can result from undiagnosed diabetes, not enough insulin, eating too much, not getting enough exercise and stress; also known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or ketoacidosis
hypoglycemia a life-threatening complication of diabetes that can result from either too much insulin or too little food; also known as insulin reaction or insulin shock
insulin reaction a life-threatening complication from diabetes that can result from too much insulin or not enough food; also known as hypoglycemia or insulin shock
myocardial infarction a condition in which blood flow to the heart is completely blocked and muscle cells die; also known as a heart attack
obstructed airway a condition in which a person has something blocking the tube through which air enters the lungs
receptive aphasia inability to understand what others are communicating through speech or written words
respiratory arrest the medical term for the stopping of breathing
shock a condition in which there is decreased blood flow to organs and tissues
syncope loss of consciousness; also called fainting
CHAPTER 10 Bedmaking and Unit Care
anxiety uneasiness or fear, often about a situation or condition
biorhythms natural rhythms or cycles related to body functions
circadian rhythm the 24-hr day-night cycle
closed bed bed made completely with the bedspread and blankets in place
depressant a substance that causes calmness and drowsiness
disposable designed to be thrown away after one use
draw sheet an extra sheet placed on top of the bottom sheet; used for moving residents
incontinence the inability to control the bladder or bowels, which leads to an involuntary loss of urine or feces
insomnia the inability to fall asleep or remain asleep
occupied bed a bed made while the resident is in the bed
open bed bed made with the linen folded down to the foot of the bed
parasomnias sleep disorders
sleep natural period of rest for the mind and body during which energy is restored
stimulant a drug that increases or quickens actions of the body
surgical bed bed made so that a person can easily move onto it from a stretcher
unoccupied bed a bed made while no resident is in the bed
CHAPTER 10 Bedmaking and Unit Care
anxiety uneasiness or fear, often about a situation or condition
biorhythms natural rhythms or cycles related to body functions
circadian rhythm the 24-hr day-night cycle
closed bed bed made completely with the bedspread and blankets in place
depressant a substance that causes calmness and drowsiness
disposable designed to be thrown away after one use
draw sheet an extra sheet placed on top of the bottom sheet; used for moving residents
incontinence the inability to control the bladder or bowels, which leads to an involuntary loss of urine or feces
insomnia the inability to fall asleep or remain asleep
occupied bed a bed made while the resident is in the bed
open bed bed made with the linen folded down to the foot of the bed
parasomnias sleep disorders
sleep natural period of rest for the mind and body during which energy is restored
stimulant a drug that increases or quickens actions of the body
surgical bed bed made so that a person can easily move onto it from a stretcher
unoccupied bed a bed made while no resident is in the bed
CHAPTER 12 Personal Care
additive a substance added to another substance, changing its effect
aspiration the inhalation of food or drink into the lungs; can cause pneumonia or death
axilla underarm or armpit area
bridge a type of dental appliance that replaces missing or pulled teeth
dandruff excessive shedding of dead skin cells from the scalp
dentures artificial teeth
edema swelling in body tissues caused by excess fluid
edentulous lacking teeth; toothless
gingivitis an inflammation of the gums
grooming practices to care for oneself, such as caring for fingernails and hair
halitosis bad-smelling breath
hygiene methods of keeping the body clean
partial bath bath that includes washing the face, underarms and hands,and performing perineal care
pediculosis an infestation with lice
perineal care care of the genitals and anal area
plaque a substance that forms in a brief period of time if oral care is not done regularly
tartar hard deposits on the teeth that are filled with bacteria and may cause gum disease and loose teeth if they are not removed
CHAPTER 14 Nutritional and Fluid Balance
apathy lack of interest
aspiration the inhalation of food or fluid into the lungs
diet cards cards that list resident's names and information about special diets, allergies, likes and dislikes and any other dietary instructions
diuretics medications that reduce fluid volume in the body
dysphagia difficulty with swallowing
fasting a period of time during which food is given up voluntarily
fluid balance taking in and eliminating equal amounts of fluid
fluid overload a condition in which the body cannot eliminate the fluid consumed
force fluids a medical order for a person to drink more fluids
glucose natural sugar
graduate a measuring container
input the fluid a person consumes; also called intake
intake the fluid a person consumes, also called input
malnutrition poor nutrition due to insufficient food intake or improper diet
metabolism the process of utilizing all nutrients that enter the body to provide energy, growth and maintenance
nutrient substance in food that enables the body to use energy for metabolism
nutrition the taking in and using of food by the body to maintain health
output fluid that is eliminated each day through urine, feces and vomitus, as well as perspiration; also includes suction material and wound drainage
puree to chop, blend or grind food into a thick paste the consistency of baby food
restrict fluids a medical order that limits the amount of fluid that a person can take in
special diet a diet for people who have certain illnesses or conditions; also called therapeutic or modified diets
vegans vegetarians who do not eat any animal products including milk, cheese, other dairy items or eggs; vegans may also not use or war any animal products, including wool, silk or leather
vegetarians people who do not eat meat, fish or poultry for religious, moral or health reasons; they may or may not eat eggs and dairy products
CHAPTER 16 The Urinary System
24-hour urine specimen a urine specimen consisting of all urine voided during a 24-hour period
calculi kidney stones
catheter tube inserted through the skin or into a body opening; used to add or drain fluid
chronic renal failure (CRF) progressive condition in which the kidneys cannot filter certain waste products; also called chronic kidney failure
clean-catch specimen a urine specimen that does not include the first and last urine voided; also called mid-stream
condom catheter a catheter that has an attachment on the end that fits onto the penis; also called a Texas or external catheter
dialysis a process that cleanses the body of wastes that the kidneys cannot remove due to kidney failure
end-stage renal disease (ESRD) condition in which the kidneys have failed and dialysis or transplantation is required
indwelling catheter a catheter that stays inside the bladder for a period of time; urine drains into a bag
ketones chemical substances that the body produces when it does not have enough insulin in the blood
micturation the process of emptying the bladder of urine; also called urination or voiding
routine urine specimen a urine specimen that can be collected anytime a person voids
specific gravity a test performed to measure the density of urine
sphincter a ring-like muscle that opens and closes an opening in the body
straight catheter a catheter that does not stay inside the person; it is removed immediately after urine is drained or sampled
urinary incontinence the inability to control the bladder, which leads to an involuntary loss of urine
urinary tract infection (UTI) a disorder that causes inflammation of the bladder; also called cystitis
voiding the process of emptying the bladder of urine; also called urination or micturation
CHAPTER 18 The Integumentary System
bony prominences areas of the body where the bone lies close to the skin
closed wound wound in which the skin's surface is not broken
dermis the inner layer of the two main layers of tissue that make up the skin
eczema a temporary or chronic skin disorder that results in redness, itching, burning, swelling, cracking, weeping and lesions; also called dermatitis
epidermis the outer layer of the two main layers of tissue that make up the skin
gangrene death of tissue caused by infection or lack of blood flow
integument natural protective covering
lesion an area of abnormal tissue or an injury or wound
melanin the pigment that gives skin its color
melanocyte cell in the skin that produces and contains the pigment called melanin
necrosis the death of living cells or tissues caused by lack of nourishment to the tissues
open wound wound in which the skin's surface is not intact
pressure points areas of the body that bear much of its weight
pressure sore a serious wound resulting from skin breakdown; also known as decubitus ulcer or bed sore
psoriasis a chronic skin condition caused by skin cells growing too quickly which results in red, white or silver patches, itching and discomfort
ringworm a fungal infection that causes red scaly patches to appear in a ring shape, generally on the upper body or the hands and feet
scabies a contagious skin infection caused by mites burrowing into the skin that results in pimple-like irritations, rashes, intense itching and sores
shearing rubbing or friction resulting from the skin moving one way and the bone underneath it remaining fixed or moving in the opposite direction
shingles a viral infection caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox; causes pain, itching, rashes and possibly chills and fever
sitz bath a warm soak of the perineal area to cleanse perineal wounds and reduce inflammation and pain
wart contagious rough, hard bump caused by a virus
CHAPTER 20 The Respiratory System
alveoli tiny, grape-like sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide take place
asthma a chronic and episodic inflammatory disease that makes it difficult to breathe and causes coughing and wheezing
bronchi branches of the passages of the respiratory system that lead from the trachea to the lungs
bronchiectasis a condition in which the bronchi become permanently dilated (wider) and damaged
bronchitis an irritation and inflammation of the ling of the bronchi
chest percussion clapping the chest to help lungs drain with the force of gravity
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) a chronic, progressive and incurable disease that causes difficulty breathing
emphysema a chronic, incurable lung disease in which the alveoli in lungs become filled with trapped air; usually results from smoking and chronic bronchitis
expiration the process of exhaling air out of the lungs
hemoptysis the coughing up of blood from the respiratory tract
inspiration the process of breathing air into the lungs
lungs main organs of respiration responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
multidrug-resistant TB (MDR_TB) disease which occurs when the full course of medication is not taken for tuberculosis
oxygen therapy the administration of oxygen to increase the supply of oxygen to the lungs
pneumonia acute inflammation in the lung tissue caused by bacterial, viral or fungal infections and/or chemical irritants
respiration the process of breathing air into the lungs and exhaling air out of the lungs
sputum mucus coughed up from the lungs
trachea an air passage that goes from the throat (pharynx) to the bronchi; also known as the windpipe
tuberculosis a contagious lung disease caused by a bacterium that is transmitted through the air, causes coughing, difficulty breathing, fever and fatigue
CHAPTER 22 The Nervous System
age-related macular degeneration (AMD) a condition in which the macula degenerates, gradually causing central vision lose
agitated the state of being excited, restless or troubled
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) a progressive, degenerative and irreversible disease that is a form of dementia; there is no cure
bipolar disorder a type of depression that causes a person to have mood swings, changes in energy levels and in the ability to function; also called manic depression
brain the part of the nervous system housed in the skull that is responsible for motor activity, memory, thought, speech and intelligence, along with vital functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure and breathing
burnout mental or physical exhaustion due to a prolonged period of stress and frustration
cataract a condition in which the lens of the eye becomes cloudy, causing vision loss
catastrophic reaction reacting to something in an unreasonable, exaggerated way
central nervous system part of the nervous system made up of the brain and spinal cord
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) a condition caused when the blood supply to the brain is cut off suddenly by a clot or ruptured blood vessel; also called a stroke
cognition the ability to think clearly and logically
concussion a head injury that occurs from a banging movement of the brain against the skull
delirium a sudden state of severe confusion due to a change in the body; also called acute confusional state or acute brain syndrome
delusion a belief in something that is not true or is out of touch with reality
dementia a serious, progressive loss of mental abilities such as thinking, remembering, reasoning and communicating
disruptive behavior any behavior that disturbs others
elopement the act of wandering away from the facility in which a resident with Alzheimer's disease lives
epilepsy a general term used to describe a pattern of repeated seizures
farsightedness the ability to see distant objects more clearly than objects that are near; also called hyperopia
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) an anxiety disorder characterized by chronic anxiety, excessive worrying and tension, even when there is no cause for such feelings
glaucoma a condition in which the pressure in the eye increases, damaging the optic nerve and causing blindness
hallucinations seeing or hearing things that are not really there
hearing aid a battery-operated device that amplifies sound
hemianopsia loss of vision on one-half of the vision field due to CVA, tumor or trauma
hoarding collecting and putting things away in a guarded way
intervention a way to change an action or development
irreversible term used to refer to a disease or condition that cannot be cured
mental health refers to the normal function of emotional and intellectual abilities
mental illness a disease that disrupts a person's ability to function a a normal level in the family, home and community
multiple sclerosis (MS) a progressive disease in which the protective covering for the nerves, spinal cord and white matter of the brain breaks down over time; without these coverings, nerves cannot send messages to and from the brain in the normal way
nearsightedness the ability to see objects that are near more clearly than distant objects; also called myopia
neuron the basic nerve cell of the nervous system
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) a disorder characterized by repetitive behavior used to cope with anxiety
pacing walking back and forth in the same area
panic disorder an anxiety disorder that causes repeated episodes of intense fear for no known reason
paranoid schizophrenia a form of mental illness characterized by hallucinations and delusions
paraplegia a loss of function of lower body and legs
Parkinson's disease a progressive disease that causes a portion of the brain to degenerate; causes rigid muscles, shuffling gait, pill-rolling, mask-like face and tremors
peripheral nervous system part of the nervous system made up of the nerves that extend throughout the body and connect to the spinal cord
perseveration the repetition of words, phrases, questions or actions
pillaging taking things that belong to someone else; not considered stealing
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) anxiety-related disorder caused by a traumatic experience
progressive something that continually gets worse or deteriorates
quadriplegia loss of function of trunk, legs and arms
reality orientation type of therapy that uses calendars, clocks, signs and lists to help people with Alzheimer's disease remember who and where they are
reminiscence therapy type of therapy that encourages people with Alzheimer's disease to remember and talk about the past
remotivation therapy type of therapy that promotes self-esteem, self-awareness and socialization in groups for people with Alzheimer's disease
rummaging going through items belonging to other people
schizophrenia a form of chronic mental illness that may have acute episodes; affects a person's ability to think, communicate, make decisions and understand reality
social anxiety disorder a disorder in which a person has excessive anxiety about social situations; also called social phobia
spinal cord the part of the nervous system inside the vertebral canal that conducts messages between the brain and the body and controls spinal reflexes
substance abuse the use of legal or illegal substances in a way that is harmful to oneself or others
sundowning a condition in which a person gets restless and agitated in the late afternoon, evening or night
trigger a situation that leads to agitation
validating giving value or approving
validation therapy a type of therapy that lets people with Alzheimer's disease believe they are living in the past or in imaginary circumstances
violent word used to describe actions that include attacking, hitting or threatening someone
wandering walking around a facility without any known goal or purpose
withdrawl the physical and mental symptoms caused by ceasing to use a particular addictive substance
CHAPTER 24 The Immune and Lymphatic Systems and Cancer
acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in which the body's immune system is weakened and unable to fight infection
autoimmune disease a disease in which the body is unable to recognize its own tissue and begins to attack the tissues
benign non-cancerous
biopsy a removal of a sample of tissue for examination and diagnosis
cancer a general term used to describe a disease in which abnormal cells grow in an uncontrolled way
homophobia a fear of homosexuality
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) a virus that attacks the body's immune system and gradually disables it; eventually causes AIDS
lymph a clear yellowish fluid that carries disease-fighting cells called lymphocytes
malignant cancerous
metastasize to spread from one part of the body to another
opportunistic infection an illness caused by organisms due to a person's inability to fight off infection
tumor a group of abnormally-growing cells
CHAPTER 26 Subacute Care
artificial airway any plastic, metal or rubber device inserted into to the respiratory tract for the purpose of maintaining ventilation
central venous line a type of intravenous line (IV) inserted into a large vein in the body
chest tubes hollow drainage tubes that are inserted into the chest to drain air, blood, pus or fluid that has collected inside the pleural space/cavity
gastrostomy an opening in the stomach and abdomen
intubation the method usd to insert an artificial airway; involvespassing a plastic tube through the mouth or nose and into the trachea or windpipe
mechanical ventilator a machine that breathes for a person
nasogastric tube a feeding tube that is inserted through the nose and into the stomach
percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube (PEG) a tube placed through the skin directly into the stomach to assist with eating
pulse oximeter device that measures a person's blood oxygen level and pulse rate
sedation the use of medication to calm a person
severe sepsis a serious illness caused by an infection, usually bacterial, that requires immediate care
telemetry application of cardiac monitoring device that transmits information about the heart rate and rhythm to a central monitoring station for assessment
total parenteral nutrition (TPN) the intravenous infusion of nutrients in a basic form that is directly absorbed by the cells, bypassing the digestive tract
tracheostomy surgically-created opening through the neck into the trachea
CHAPTER 28 Your New Position
conflict resolution the process of resolving conflicts in a positive way so that everyone is satisfied
constructive criticism the process of giving opinions about the work of others in a non-aggressive way
job description an outline of what will be expected in a job
resume a summary of a person's education and experience
stress a mentally or emotionally disruptive or upsetting condition that occurs due to changes in the environment
stressor internal or external factors or stimuli that cause stress
CHAPTER 23 The Endocrine System
diabetes a condition in which the pancreas does not produce insulin or does not produce enough insulin; causes problems with circulation and can damage vital organs
gland an organ that produces and secretes hormones
hormones chemical substances created by the body that control numerous body functions
hyperthyroidism a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone, which causes body processes to speed up and metabolism to increase
hypothyroidism a condition in which the body lacks thyroid hormone, which causes body processes to slow down
metabolism the process of burning food for heat and energy
pre-diabetes a condition in which a person's blood glucose levels are above normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes
CHAPTER 25 Rehabilitation and Restorative Care
abduction moving a body part away from the midline of the body
active assisted range of motion (AAROM) exercises to put a joint through its full arc of motion that are done by a resident with some help from a staff member
active range of motion (AROM) exercises to put a joint through its full arc of motion that are done by a resdent alone, without help
adaptive devices special equipment that helps a person who is ill or disabled perform ADLs; also called assistive devices
adduction moving a body part toward the midline of the body
assisstive devices special equipment that helps a person who is ill or disabled perform ADLs; also called adaptive devices
dorsiflexion bending backward
extension straightening a body part
flexion bending a body part
foot drop weakness of muscles in the feet and ankles that interferes with the ability to flex the ankles and walk normally
hyperextension extending a joint beyond its normal range of motion
orthotic devices devices applied externally to limbs to support, protect, improve function and prevent complications
passive range of motion (PROM) exercises to put a joint through its full arc of motion that are done by staff, without the resident's help
physiatrists doctors who specialize in rehabilitation
pronation turning downward
range of motion (ROM) exercises that put a joint through its full arc of motion
rehabilitation care that is managed by professionals to restore a person to the highest possible level of functioning after an illness or injury
restorative care care used after rehabilitation to maintain a person's function and increase independence
rotation turning the joint
supination turning upward
CHAPTER 27 End-of-Life Care
anticipatory grief a period of mourning when the dying person or his family is expecting the death
autopsy an examination of a body by a pathologist to try to determine the cause of death
bereavement the period following a loss in which moruning occurs
Cheyne-Stokes respirations alternating slow, irregular respirations followed by rapid, shallow respirations
complicated grief grief complicated by disorders or conditions, such as depression and substance abuse
cremation the process of burning a dead body until it turns to ash
grief a deeply emotional process that is a response to loss
grief process the varying emotional responses to grief
grief therapy therapy to try to resolve problems due to separation from the deceased
mourning the period in which people work to adapt to a loss; influenced by culture, tradition and society
palliative care care given to people who have serious, life-threatening diseases; goals are to control symptoms, reduce suffering, prevent side effects and complications, and maintain quality of life
pathologist a doctor with advanced training in the examination of organs and tissues
postmortem care care of the body after death
terminal causing or approaching death
unresolved grief grief that continues beyond what is considered a reasonable period of time; can affect the person's ability to function normally

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *