GenChem Final Rev 2

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Question Answer
axial up and down
equitorial middle
Electrons want as much _______ as possible room
There is more room is you remove ______ bond on ______ plane one; equitorial
Electron domain lone pair or bond
VSEPR valence shell electron pair repulsion; predicts electron domains repel each other and will arrange themselves to be as far apart as possible and minimize repulsive interactions
Electron domain Arrangement of bond/lone pairs around central atom
Molecular geometry Arrangement of bonded atoms
Bond Angle angle between two adjacent A-B bonds
Central atom _______ _____ dictates shape
Polar molecules have chance to be ________ in _____ soluble ; water
Bond angles of Trigonal Planar 120
Bond angleTetrahedral 109
Bond angle of Trig Bipyramidal 120 (eq-eq), 90 (eq-ax)
Octahedral 90
Water is _____ polar
Depends on ______ of ______ bonds and ______ geometry polarity; individual; molecular
Structural isomers Molecules with same formula, different atom arrangement
Intermolecular forces attractive force that hold particles together in condensed phase
Boiling point reflects __________ _________ IMF magnitude
Magnitude of _______ forces depend on how _____ electrons dispersion; mobile
The _____ interactions, the ______ boiling/melting points needed to ______ particles more; higher; separate
Name the four Van der Waals Interactions Induced dipole; dipole-dipole; hydrogen bonding; ion-dipole
Induced Dipole/ London Dispersion Forces complimentary interaction between two molecules; temporary and weak but can build up over long chain
Dipole-DIpole Attractive forces that act between polar molecules; pos and neg region in molecule; stack on top of each other and alternate; permanent interaction; Need higher boiling point/more energy to separate and force into gas phase
Hydrogen Bonding type of dipole-dipole; Hydrogen bonded to either N, O, F; alcohol and water
Ion – dipole Similar to H-bond but for ions; water surrounds Na and keeps it stable ; positive charge interacts with lone pairs ; depends on charge and size of ion on dipole moment and size of polar molecule
Valence Bond Theory states why ______ _____ up but doesn't give ________ ______ electrons pair; right geometry
If you have an atom with ______ electron, it would really like to ____ up unpaired; pair
Hybrid Orbitals explain _______ ______ VSEPR geometries
It costs ____ energy to hybridize and go to ____ state little; higher
sp linear
sp2 trigonal planar
sp3 tetrahedral
sp3d1 trigonal bipyramidal
sp3d2 octahedral
Bond Order gives relative bond strength; the higher the bond order ,the more stable the molecule; (# of electrons in bonding orbitals – # of electrons in antibond)/2
Bond length directly related to _____ ______; the _____ the length, the _____ the bond bond strength; shorter; stronger
Sigma bond (o) shared electron density in concentrated directly along internuclear axis; # of bond regions
Pi bond bond that forms from the interaction of parallel p orbitals; 1 = double bond; 2 = triple bond
Paramagnetic one or more unpaired electron
Diamagnetic no unpaired electrons
Ammonia's unusually high melting point is the result of … hydrogen bonding
IMF between calcium ion and water ion-dipole
_____ is a pure substance that will exhibit _______ bonding h20; hydrogen
He atoms do attract one another weakly through … london dispersion
If electrons can move around, then they are _________ delocalized
Combustion reaction forms CO2 and H2O; burns in presence of oxygen
Combination addition of two or more compounds to form single product
Decomposition break apart molecule; one reactant forms two or more products
Combustion analysis determination of an empirical formula by reaction with O2 to produce CO2 and H2O
Chemical reaction process that neither creates or destroys atoms but that rearranges atoms in chemical compounds
Explain how to do combustion analysis Take given grams of CO2 and convert to grams of C; Taken given grams of H2O and convert to grams of H; Subtract total weight given – grams of C – grams of H to give you grams of Oxygen; Convert each back to mol; Divide by smallest mol
Limiting Reagent completely consumed and determines amount of product formedf
Excess reactants reactants present in greater form than necessary
Explain how to find limiting reagents Convert first reactant from grams to mole of what is asked to be made; same thing for second reactant; smaller one is limiting reagent; use that reactant to convert to grams of product asked to be found
Percent yield amount you get out with respect to what you theoretically should get out
Percent yield equation (% experimental amount / % Theory) x 100

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