Lab final

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What are synovial joints? In which the articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containing Synovial fluid.
All synovial joints are what? Diarthroses or freely movable joints
What does diathroses mean? Freely movable joints
What is an example of a ball-and-socket joint? Shoulder or glenohumeral or hip bone
What is an example of a hinge joint? Elbow
What degree of movement does the hinge joint have? Flexion and extension
What is an example of a pivot joint? Proximal radioulnar joint
What degree of movement does a pivot joint have? Rotation
What joint is amphiarthrotic? The distal radioulnar
What is an example of a fibrous joint? The distal radioulnar
What is an example of a gliding joint? Intercarpal
What degree of movement does a distal radioulnar joint have? Slight movement
What degree of movement does a gliding joint have? Slight movement
What is an example of a saddle joint? Carpometacarpal
What degree of movement does a saddle joint have? Flexion, extension, adduction, abduction
What is an example of a ligament that the shoulder joint articulates with? Coracoacromial ligament
What is an example of a plane joint? Intertarsal or intercarpal joints
What is an example of a condylar joint? Radiocarpal joint
What degree of movement do sutures have? Synarthrotic or immovable
What does synarthrotic mean?
What does amphiarthrotic mean? Slight movement
Where is cartilaginous joint located? Intervertebral
What is an example of a modified hinge joint? Knee
What happens when Pronation? Radius rotates over ulna
What happens when supination? Radius and ulna are parallel
What is an example of a ligament that articulates with the hip joint? Ischio femoral ligament
What is an example of a ligament that articulates with the knee joint? Lateral meniscus
What is the most freely moving joint of the body? Shoulder joint aka glenohumeral joint
What is the largest and most complex joint of the body? Knee joint
Define flexion : A movement that decreases the angle of the joint
Define extension: A movement that increases the angle of the joint
Define abduction: Movement of limb away from the midline of the body
Define adduction: Movement of limb toward the midline of the body
Define inversion : A movement that turns the sole of the foot medially
Define eversion : A movement that turns the sole of the foot laterally
What is a prime mover? The muscle responsible for most of the movement
What is the function of a Synergist? Assist the prime mover by adding the motion, or by stabilizing a joint
What does the antagonist do? The antagonist must relax as the prime mover contracts and vice versa, for movement to occur. Has the opposite action as the prime mover.
What do muscles pull on when contracting? Tendons
What do tendons pull on when contracting? Bones
What is the number of heads that biceps have? 2
What is the number of heads that triceps have? 3
What is the number of heads that quadriceps have ? 4
What are fixators? Fixating muscles
What muscle is circular? Orbicularis oris
What muscle is multipennate? Deltoid
What muscle is fusiform? Biceps brachii
What muscle is bipennate? Rectus femoris
What muscle is unipennate? Extensor digitorum longus
What muscle is parallel? Sartorius
What muscle is convergent? Pectoralis major
What does the term rectus mean when naming muscle fibers? Straight
What does the term transverse mean when naming muscle fibers? They run at right angles
What does the term oblique mean when naming muscle fibers? They run at right angles and obliquely
What does maximum mean when naming relative size of the muscle? Largest
What does minimum mean when naming relative size of the muscle? Smallest
Some muscles are named for the bone with which they are associated, what is an example? Temporalis muscle overlies the temporal bone
Some muscles are named for the bone with which they are associated, what is an example? Brachialis muscle overlies the brachial bone
Some muscles are named based on the shape of the muscle, what shape is a deltoid muscle? Triangular
Some muscles are named based on the shape of the muscle, what shape is a trapezius muscle? Trapezoid
Some muscles are named based on their point of attachment, why is the sternocleiodmastoid muscle an example? It’s origin on the sternum (sterno) and clavicle (cleido) and inserts on the mastoid process
Where is the epicranius/frontalis muscle origin? Skin above eyebrow
Where is the epicranius/occipitalis muscle origin? Occipital bone
Where is the orbicularis oculi muscle origin? Frontal bone and maxilla
Where is the orbicularis oris muscle origin? Muscles around the mouth
Where is the buccinator muscle origin? Maxilla and mandible
Where is the platysma muscle origin? Fascia of the upper chest
Where is the zygomaticus muscle origin? Zygomatic bone
Where is the masseter muscle origin? Zygomatic arch
Where is the insertion for the frontalis/epicranius muscle? Epicranial aponeurosis
Where is the insertion for the occipitalis/frontal muscle? Epicranial aponeurosis
Where is the insertion for the orbicularis oculi muscle? Continuous around to origin
Where is the insertion for the orbicularis oris muscle? Skin of the lips
Where is the insertion for the buccinator muscle? Muscles of the lips
Where is the insertion for the zygomaticus muscle? Angle of mouth and upper lip
Where is the insertion for the platysma muscle? Mandible and skin at the corner of mouth
Where is the insertion for the masseter muscle? Angle of mandible
Where is the insertion for the temporalis muscle? Coronoid process of mandible
Where is the insertion for the sternocleiodmastoid muscle? Mastoid process of temporal
What is the action of the epicranial/frontal muscle? Wrinkled forehead and raises eyebrows
What is the action of the Epicranius/occipitalis muscle? Assists frontal muscle in wrinkling and raising eyebrows
What is the action of the Orbicularis oculi muscle? Blinking, squinting, draws eyebrows inferiorly
What is the action of the Orbicularis oris muscle? Puckers lips
What is the action of the Buccinator muscle? Compress cheek
What is the action of the Zygomaticus muscle? Smiling
What is the action of the Platysma muscle? Pouting
What is the action of the Masseter muscle? Elevates mandible
What is the action of the Temporalis muscle? Elevates mandible
What is the action of the Sternocleidomastoid muscle? Rotates head to opposite side; flexes neck
Where is the origin of the erector spinae group? Sacral chest and lumbar vertebrae
Where is the origin of the External intercostals? Inferior, lateral border of each rib
Where is the origin of the Internal intercostals? Inferior border of each rib
Where is the origin of the Rectus abdominis? Symphysis pubis
Where is the origin of the external oblique ? Lower 8 ribs
Where is the origin of the Internal oblique? Iliac crest
Where is the origin of the Transversus abdominis? Lower 6 ribs, iliac crest
Where is the insertion for the erector spinae group? Thoracic vertebrae and lower ten ribs
Where is the insertion for the External intercostals? Superior border of the next rib
Where is the insertion for the Internal intercostals? Superior border of the next rib
Where is the insertion for the Rectus abdominis? Xiphoid process
Where is the insertion for the External oblique? Iliac crest and Linea alba
Where is the insertion for the Internal oblique? Lower 3 rib and linea alba
Where is the insertion for the Transversus abdominis? Linea alba
What is the action of the erector spinae group? Extension and lateral flexion of vertebral column
What is the action of the External intercostals? Elevates ribs to assist inhalation
What is the action of the Internal intercostals ? Depresses ribs to assist in deep exhalation
What is the action of the Rectus abdominis? Flex trunk and compress abdominal organs
What is the action of the External oblique? Flex trunk and compress abdominal organs
What is the action of the Internal oblique? Flex trunk and compress abdominal organs
What is the action of the Transversus abdominis? Flex trunk and compress abdominal organs
What is the insertion of the trapezius? Clavicle and acromion process of the scapula
What is the insertion of the Rhomboides major? Vertebral border of scapula
What is the insertion of the Serratus anterior? Ventral surface of the scapula
What is the insertion of the Pectoralis minor? Coracoid process of the scapula
What is the action of the Trapezius? Rotates scapula, elevates shoulder
What is the action of the Rhomboides major? Elevates and adducts scapula
What is the action of the serratus anterior?
What is the action of the pectoralis minor draws scapula forward and downward, also raises ribs in a forced inspiration
What is the action of the pectoralis major? depresses the shoulder
What is the action of the Deltoid? Abducts upper arm
What is the action of the Supraspinatus muscle? Abducts upper arm
What is the action of the Infraspinatus muscle? Laterally rotates upper arm
What is the action of the Teres minor? Laterally rotates upper arm
What is the action of the Teres major? Medially rotates upper arm
What is the action of the Biceps brachii muscle? Flexes forearm , supinates forearm
What is the action of the Brachialis muscle? Flexes forearm
What is the action of the Triceps brachii? Extends forearm
What is the action of the Brachioradialis? Flexes forearm
What is the action of the Pronator teres muscle? Pronates forearm
What is the action of the Supinator muscle? Supinates forearm
What is the action of the extensors muscle ? Extend hand and fingers
What is the action of the flexors ? Flex hand and fingers
What is the function of astrocytes? Play a role in capillary neuron exchange and control the chemical environment around neurons, keep neurons in place
What is the function of Microglial cells ? Eat debri and dead tissue
what is the function of ependymal cells? Form the cerebrospinal fluid
what is the function of oligodendrocyte cells? Form the myelin sheaths around axons
What is the function of Schwann cells ? Form the myelin sheath around one axon
What is the function of Dendrites? To receive information
What is the function of
How many basic components does a reflex arc have? 5
What is the minimum number of neurons a knee jerk or patellar reflex have? 2
What is the receptor? The site of stimulus
What is the function of the sensory neuron? Transmits afferent impulses to the CNS
What does the integration center consist of? One or more neurons in the CNS
What is the function of the motor neuron? Conduct efferent impulses from the integration center to an effector organ
What is an effector? A muscle fiber or a gland cell
What is the function of the effector? Respond to the efferent impulses by contracting or secreting
Describe the patellar or knee jerk reflex: Simple, two neuron, monosynaptic reflex arc, one snap, quick reflex
Describe the plantar reflex: Neurological test, toes flex and move closer together if no damage
What is a monosynaptic reflex? No interneurons, one snap, quick reflex
What is a polysynaptic reflex? 2 or more snaps, slower reflex, interneurons
Describe babinskis sign: An abnormal response in which the toes flare and the great toe moves in an upward direction.
What is the action of lateral rectus muscle? Moves eye laterally
What is the action of Medial rectus muscle? Moves eye medially
What is the action of Superior rectus muscle? Elevates eye and turns it medially
What is the action of Inferior rectus muscle? Depresses eye and turns it medially
What is the action of Inferior oblique muscle? Elevates eye and turns it laterally
What is the action of Superior oblique muscle? Depresses eye and turns it laterally
What is the function of the eyebrows? Shade and prevent sweat from entering the eyes
What is the function of the Eyelids? Protect the eyes and spread the lacrimal fluid with blinking
What is the function of the Conjuctivae? Secrete mucus to lubricate the eye
What is the function of the Lacrimal apparatus? Protects the eye by keeping it moist
What is the function of the Lacrimal gland ? Secretes lacrimal fluid
What is the function of the Nasolacrimal duct? Allows lacrimal fluid to flow into the nasal cavity
What is the function of the Extrinsic eye muscles? Controls the movement of each eyeball and hold the eyes in the orbitis

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