O- Chem 1 Vocab

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Orbital A mathematically defined region of space around the nucleus where we are most likely to find an electron
Covalent bond Shared pair of electrons that spend their time in a molecular orbital
Degenerate Identical in energy
Bronsted-Lowry acid Hydrogen ion donor
Bronsted-Lowry Base Hydrogen ion acceptor
Induction Pushing or pulling of electrons/electron density through sigma bonds
Electron delocalization Electrons spending their time around more than 2 nuclei. Requires 3 or more adjacent p orbitals
Lewis acid Electron pair acceptor
Lewis base Electron pair donor
Electrophile Electron pair acceptor
Nucleophile Electron pair donor
Alkanes Hydrocarbons with only single/sigma bonds
Isomer Compounds with the same formula but different structure
Constitutional isomers Isomers that have different order of attachment
Amines Have a N attached to an alkyl C
Torsional strain Repulsion between bonding electrons on adjacen atoms
Hyperconjugation An overlap of a molecular orbital and a next door empty bonding orbital
Steric strain Repulsion between the electron clouds of nearby groups
Angle strain Strain associated with "non-ideal" bond angles. Aka ring strain
Stereoisomers Isomers that different in the 3D arrangement of atoms in space but NOT order of attachment
Geometric isomers Stereo isomers that result from a point of rigidity (prevents free rotation)
Chiral Asymmetric
Enantiomers Nonidentical mirror images
Diastereomers Stereo isomers that aren't enantiomers
Meso compound A compound with asymmetrical centers but is NOT asymmetric
Optical rotation Plane polarized light. Physical property that only chiral compounds have. Different even in enantiomers
Electrophilic addition Primary reaction of alkenes
Thermodynamics Study of energy changes
Kinetics Rate of reactions
Gibbs free energy Energy stored in bonds in the compound
Exergonic Energy releasing
Endergonic Energy absorbing
Hammond Postulate The transition state between 2 species looks most like the higher energy species (the one it is closer in energy to)
Regioselective reaction Rxn where 2 or more constitutional isomer products are possible, but one (or some) are preferred over the other(s)
Catalyst Speeds up rate of rxn. Doesn't get consumed. Used and regenerated
Epoxidation Addition of oxygen
Epoxide 3-membered cyclic ether. Aka oxirane
Hydrogenation Addition of H2
Stereoselective reaction A rxn that produces 2 or more stereoisomer products AND exhibits a preference for once (or more) over the other(s).
Syn addition Add from the same side
Anti addition If electrophile comes in from top, nucleophile adds from opposite side
Enol Hydroxide attached to a carbon carbon double bond
Carbonyl Carbon doubly bonded to an oxygen
Ketone Carbonyl attached to 2 carbons
Tautomerization Rapidly reversible rearrangement
Aldehyde Carbonyl attached to a carbon and a hydrogen
Conjugated diene 2 alkene systems separated by a sigma bond
Aromaticity Special case of electron delocalization. Must have uninterrupted pi system and odd # of electron pairs in the pi system
Antiaromatic Uninterrupted pi system but even # of electron pairs
Racemization Perfect 50/50 mixture of enantiomers
Reduction Net gain of electrons; net gain of H and/or net loss of O.
Oxidation Net loss of electron; met loss of H and/or net gain of O
H2CrO4. Name? What is it used for? Chromic acid. Oxidation of alcohols
R-SH. Name and pKa? Thiol. pKa = 7-8
RS -1…name Thiolate
R-S-R. Name Thioether
Positive S attached to 3 carbon groups. Name? Sulfonium
R-S-S-R. Name? Disulfide
Grignard Reagent R-Mg-X
Organocuprate? R2CuLi
Radicals Atoms/compounds with unpaired electrons

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