psych test #5

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everyone experiences feelings of anxiety and depression
difference between disorder and normal feelings of depression/anxiety -must cause significant distress or interfere with daily functioning-duration (dictated by diagnostic criteria)
Who can diagnose disorders? -clinical psychologists-psychiatrists
clinical psychologists PhD, can't prescribe medications, harder to get into than med school
psychiatrists MD, doctor, prescribes medications
What do they use as a guide to diagnose? DSM-5 -uses symptoms to diagnose-classification system based on research-not used for treatment
DSM stand for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
3 components of anxiety disorder -subjective distress (feeling uncomfortable, fear, stress)-physiological response (fight or flight is activated)-behavioral component (reaction to a problem)
how do most people deal with problems -by avoiding them-if you always avoid, then it will bother you for your entire life
when do you consider it an anxiety disorder -persists over time for at least 6 months- causes distress or impairs functioning
generalized anxiety disorder -excessive, uncontrollable worry about everything-feel tense-seen as irritable (always on edge), twitching, struggle concentrating-exaggerated startle response-incidence: 3% -more women than men
exaggerated startle response -able to measure magnitude of this-hypervigilance-increased sensitivity
panic disorder -sudden panic attacks-last about 5 minutes-amygdala produces fear-hippocampus records the context-incidence: 2-3% -more women than men
physical symptoms of panic attack -hard to breathe, heart races, sweating, shaking, nausea, dizziness-adrenaline is released
cognitive symptoms "i'm dying" or "I'm going crazy"
Why do only some people have panic attacks -they are more sensitive to body cues-notice arousal changes and start to freak out about them
CO2 experiment two groups: ppl with panic attacks and healthy ppl-breathed 'special' air with lots of CO2–> feels like not getting enough air-induced panic attack in those who get them-no change in healthy ppl
smoking can cause panic attacks -increase levels of nicotine which increases heart rate-breathing in lots of CO2 which feels like you're not getting enough air
panic disorder with agoraphobia -panic attacks that make you feel embarrassed-afraid of having them in public-avoid situation and similar onesex. attack at mall-> no store-> no mall->no dif mall-> no grocery-> no crowds-eventually don't leave house-incidence: 1.7%-women>men
specific phobia -intense fear of one thing that impairs functioning-4 categories-incidence: 7-9%-gender depends on each category
animal phobia fear of insects, dogs, spiders
natural environment phobia heights, storms, water
blood/injection/injury phobia needles, invasive medical procedures
situational phobia elevators, airplanes, enclosed spaces
psychological disorder a syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individuals cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior
people considered mad were caged or given therapies-genital mutilation, beatings, removal of teeth or intestines, transfusions of animal blood
chain free initiative aimed to reform hospitals into patient-friendly and humane places with minimum restraints-formed by world health organizations
brutal treatments may worsen mental health
Philippe Pinel opposed brutal treatments-believed moral treatment will help improve mental illness
medical model the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
3 ways feelings are formed interaction of biological, psychological, and social-cultural influences
amok Malaysia, a sudden outburst of violent behavior
susto latin america, a condition marked by severe anxiety, restlessness, and a fear of black magic
taijin kyofusho social anxiety about their appearance, combine with a readiness to blush and a fear of eye contact
epigenetics study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change
classification aims to predict the disorder's future course, suggest appropriate treatment, and prompt research into its causes
labels -can change reality by putting us on alert for evidence that confirms our view-are self-fulfilling-create expectations that guide how we perceive and interpret people
Rosenhan study -8 healthy people went to hospital-complained of hearing voices-mis diagnosed with disorders-docs found causes of disorders linked to their life-shows labels matter
how mental health professionals use labels -communicate their cases-comprehend the underlying causes-discern effective treatments of disorders
how researchers use labels when discussing work that explores the causes and treatments of disorder
number of americans who suffer from mental disorders 1 in 4
lowest and highest rated reports of mental disorders lowest: Shanghaihighest: United States
immigrant paradox people with immigrant parents are more at risk of mental disorder in the united statesex. Mexican-Americans born in US
poverty relating to mental disorder crosses ethnic and gender lines-pov can cause disorders –> depression-disorders can cause poverty –>schizophrenia
North Carolina Native Americans in Poverty -exhibited deviant and aggressive behaviors-after 4 years, those who got out of poverty decreased their behavioral problems by 40%
what age do disorders typically appear about 75% of all disorders experience symptoms by age 24
2 disorders that involve anxiety obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
free floating anxiety anxiety that is not linked to a specific stressor or threat-seen in generalized anxiety disorder
agoraphobia fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult when panic strikes
Charles Darwin at 28 developed panic disorder-moved to country, avoided social gatherings, only traveled with wife-distraction was developing the evolution theory
social anxiety disorder people have an intense fear of other people's negative judgements-avoid potentially embarrassing moments–> eating out, speaking out-extreme shyness
obsessive compulsive disorder unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions), actions (compulsions), or both-persistently interferes with everyday living-haunt a person, time consuming, effective functioning is impossible-more common in younger people than adults
posttraumatic stress disorder disorder of haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawl, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after traumatic event-veterans, survivors of accidents, disasters, violent and sexual assults-women>men
why do some people develop PTSD and others don't? -more sensitive emotion-processing limbic systems that flood their bodies with hormones-PTSD patients have smaller amygdalas
survivor resiliency ability to recover after severe stress
how does conditioning magnify one event into a phobia stimulus generalization and reinforcement
stimulus generaliziaton when a person experiences a fearful event and later develops a fear of similar events-can go away or they can linger and grow
reinforcement helps maintain fears and anxiety-helps to avoid or escape the feared situation –> reduces fear=reinforcement-helps to calm us down–>likely to repeat this action
cognition with disorders learning by observation can create a disorder or phobia in a personex. monkeys not afraid of snakes–> watch parents who fear snakes–> 3 months later the babies are afraid of snakes
3 ways to understanding anxiety, OCD, and PTSD conditioning, cognition, biology
3 parts of biology and relation to disorders genes, the brain, natural selection
genes -genes can be fragile or durable-influence disorders by regulating neurotransmitters (serotonin and glutamate)-17 gene variations relating to anxiety
serotonin neurotransmitter that influences sleep, mood, and attention to negative images
glutamate neurotransmitter that is alert–> too much and brain's alarm centers become overactive
the brain traumatic experiences create new neural pathways-OCD mental hiccup–> repeats itself-PTSD higher than normal amygdala activity
anterior cingular cortex brain region that monitors our actions and checks for errors
natural selection fears and phobias can be passed down through evolution-ancestors didn't like snakes-fear planes due to confined spaces and being high up -similar fears as many of our ancestors had
major depressive disorder a disorder in which a person experiences in the absence of drugs or another medical condition, two or more weeks with five or more symptoms at least one of which much be either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure-daily distress or impairement
dysthymia adults experiencing persistent depressive disorder-mildly depressed mood for two years or more-difficult decision making, hopeless, poor self-esteem, lower energy levels, problems sleeping, eating problems-less severe than depression, lasts longer
mania a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state in which dangerously poor judgement is common-similar to fast forward button-little need for sleep, hard to interrupt, talk a lot, poor judgement, creativity boost, fewer sexual inhibitions
bipolar disorder person alternates between hopelessness/ lethargy of depression and overexcited mania state-alternates manic and depression state-severe depression-lack of insight-feel 'normal' in between episodes-manic states are shorter than depression
facts that any theory of depression must explain -behavioral and cognitive changes accompanied by depression-it's widespread-women's risk is nearly double that of males-self-termination-stressful events-new generations
behavioral and cognitive changes with depression -inactive and unmotivated-recall negative events and expect negative outcomes-sensitive
depression is widespread more than 350 million people suffer from depression-leading cause of disability worldwide
women's risk is more than males -women experience more situations –> multiple roles, child care, less pay.
men's disorders tend to be more external-alcohol use, antisocial. lack of impulse control
depression self-terminates -therapy helps speed up recovery-most people return to normal and recover from major depression-don't necessarily need help
stressful events can lead to depression -depression is response to past and current loss-minor stressors can leave emotional scars-death, assault, divorce, loss of a job-moving to new cultures increases risk of depression
each generation, depression is more likely -highest rates are in developed countries in young adults-3 times more likely to have depression than grandparents -depression is more likely in each generation
learned helplessness the hopelessness and passive resignation animals and humans learn when they experience uncontrollable painful events-found more often in women than men
rumination compulsive fretting; overthinking about our problems and their causes-can be adaptive
why do only some people experience depression explain bad events in terms that are stable, global, and internal-self-blaming and self-focused-self esteem plummets with threats
why is depression more common in westerners? due to the rise of individualism and decline in religion and family-this forces people to take responsibility for their failures or rejections
state-dependent memory tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
depression cycle 1. stressful experience2. negative explanatory style3. depressed mood4. cognitive and behavioral changes –>1
when do people most often commit suicide -when they begin to rebound and become capable of following through-not when they are in the most depressed state of mind
racial differences of suicide whites and native americans are more likely to kill themselves than blacks, hispanics, and asians in usa
gender differences of suicide -women are more likely to attempt than men-men are 2 to 4 more times likely to actually end their lives-men use more lethal methods
age differences of suicide -most likely to commit in late adulthood, peaking at middle age and beyond
day of week differences of suicide negative emotions arise midweek-25% of suicides in US occur on wednesdays
suicide is an alternative to current or future suffering-a way to switch off unendurable pain-occurs when feel trapped by inescapable situation
non-suicidal self-injury hurting oneself in various ways but they are not fatal-cutting, burning, hitting, tattoo, inserting things into nails-less able to tolerate emotional stress-self-critical, poor communication, bad at problem solving
why do they hurt themselves in nonsuicidal self injury -attract attention-relieve guilt by self punishment-distraction with intense pain-fit in -get others to change negative behaviors
do those engaging in NSSI commit suicide usually no-they are suicide gesturers not suicide attempters
schizophrenia psychological disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or diminished, inappropriate emotional expression
meaning of schizophrenia schizo-splitphrenia-mind-mind has suffered from split from reality
positive symptoms of schizophrenia hallucinations, talk in disorganized and deluded ways, exhibit inappropriate laughter, tears, or rage
negative symptoms toneless voices, expressionless faces, or mute and rigid bodies
hallucinations seeing, feeling, tasting, or smelling things that only exist in the mind-often time they hear voices telling them what to do
delusions a false belief, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
word salad jumbled words and ideas that make no sense even within sentences
breakdown of selective attention -in schizophrenia-a person can no longer give their undivided attention to one thing-easily distracted
impaired theory of mind -in schizophrenia-difficulty perceiving facial emotions and reading others' states of mind
catatonia condition of schizophrenia when a person will remain motionless for hours and then become agitated
chronic schizophrenia form of schizophrenia in which symptoms usually appear by late adolescence or early adulthood-with age, psychotic episodes last longer and recovery periods shorten-men are more likely than women to have this
acute schizophrenia form of schizophrenia that can begin at any age, frequently occurs in response to an emotionally traumatic event, and has extended recovery periods-often have more positive symptoms and respond to drugs better
risk factors for schizophrenia low birth weight, maternal diabetes, older paternal age, oxygen deprivation during delivery, fetal virus infections in both mom and baby, mothers blood drawn during pregnancy
brain abnormalitites in those with schizophrenia -excess dopamine receptors-low frontal lobe activity-fluid filled sacs due to thinning of cerebral tissue-smaller areas: cortex, corpus callosum, and sometimes the thalamus
odds of developing schizophrenia if parent or sibling has it goes from 1 in 100 to 1 in 10
warning signs of schizophrenia -mom's schizophrenia severe/ long-lasting-birth complications-parental separation-short attention span/poor muscle control-disruptive/ withdrawn behavior-unpredictable emotions-poor peer relations/solo play-child phys., sex, emotional abuse
2 types of mood disorders depression and bipolar disorder
depression -onset mid 20's, college students-women 10-25% and men 5-10%-nicknamed 'common cold'-women are twice as likely to get depression–> men are less likely to visit the doctor
why is depression called the common cold -to show that it is very commonissues: colds aren't big deals and depression is a big deal, people die from depression and not the common cold
Theories of depression cognitive and biological
cognitive theory of depression -cycle of negative moods and thoughts-typically irrational thoughts and ideas
biological theory of depression -low levels of neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine-genetic predisposition
antidepressants -typically increase serotonin and/or norepinephrineex. prozac blocks reuptake to make more available serotonin-meds have side effects-neurotransmitters control mood, sleep, appetite-takes 3-4 weeks to work
issue with antidepressants takes 3-4 weeks for them to work-makes a person feel hopeless so they stop taking it-increases energy levels–>have energy to take one's life-delay increases suicide risk
lack of insight of bipolar disorder people don't realize there's a problem-during manic state
how long do manic states typically last about 3 to 5 weeks
lithium -drug to treat bipolar disorder-natural salt-don't know what aspect of the drug effects the mind
bipolar video woman–> manic state, super talkative, mom had depression, misunderstood by those around her, felt love by flowers and peopleman–> believed was invincible, tried to rob bank, superior to others, rude, mean, took lots out of family life, suicide attempt
why is exercise a good treatment of depression it increases the neurons in the hippocampus-stress reliever-makes you feel calmer and better
onset of bipolar age 20-1% of the population-no gender difference (1% males and 1% females)
underlying problem of bipolar disorder difficulty regulating emotions
treatments for bipolar disorder mood stabilizers-lithium –> natural salt, no one has isolated the specific thing that makes it helpful-anticonvulsants (ex. Depakote)
how are most drugs discovered in those with mental illnesses by accident
suicide risk of those with bipolar -incidence is 15% higher than those without bipolar-1/4 of all suicides are done by those with bipolar
social anxiety disorder (social phobia) -evaluation anxiety-fear of negative evaluation-avoid social situations or endure then with severe discomfort-trouble with convos, meeting new people, public speaking, eating in public, restroom in public-incidence 7%-gender women>men
examples of social anxiety disorder -anything where you could embarrass yourself-class has 30 min presentation –> drop class, stress for weeks before, don't show up on day of presentation
spotlight effect assuming everyone will notice something about you when you walk into a room (outfit, appearance)-actually doesn't happen
how are many anxiety disorders treated? with antidepressants
obsessive-compulsive disorder -thought that causes a behavior-normal behaviors taken to an extreme-interferes with daily functioning, time consuming, distracting-incidence 2-3%-no gender difference-onset: early 20s-can develop after strep throat/scarlet fever
obsession persistent thought or impulse that causes anxietyex. contamination
compulsion repetitive, ritualistic behavior that reduces the anxietyex. excessive handwashing
common obsessions contamination, repeated doubts, order, aggressive/horrific impulses, sexual imagery
common compulsions behaviors: excessive handwashing, repeated checking, orderingmental acts: counting, repeating certain words
3 ways learning theory related to anxiety classical conditioning, observational learning, operant conditioning
classical conditioning -involuntary responses-fear: amygdala -can untrain fear with something good
observational learning -learning through others' experiencesex. parenting styles-by age 6 months, infants pay more attention to objects that an adult displayed a fearful expression toward
operant conditioning -voluntary responses -negative reinforcement (often avoidance)
negative reinforcement taking away something bad -avoidance reinforced–> takes away anxietyex. winter driving–> give friend a ride when they're scared of winter driving (avoidance–> lifelong problem) , never have opportunity to have a good experienceex. rituals
what to do if someone you love is depressed -try to help the person get an appropriate diagnosis and treatment-offer emotional support-encourage person to continue with treatment-invite person to do things-be alert for talk about suicide

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