Science 7 Midterm

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hypothesis a possible explanation for an observation that can be tested by scientific investigations
prediction a statement of what will happen next in a sequence of events
scientific law a rule that describes a pattern in nature
critical thinking comparing what you already know with information you are given in order to decide if you agree with it
dependent variable the factor a scientist observes or measures during an experiment
variable any factor that can have more than one value
oraganism something that has all the characteristics of life
cell the smallest unit of life
unicellular a living thing that is made up of only one cell
homeostasis an organism's ability to maintain steady internal conditions when outside conditions change
species a group of organisms that have similar traits and are able to produce fertile offspring
passive transport the movement of substances through a cell membrane without using the cell's energy
diffusion the movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
osmosis the diffusion of water molecules only through a membrane
active transport the movement to substances through a cell membrane using the cell's energy
endocytosis the process during which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane
exocytosis the process during which a cell's vesicles release their contents outside the cell
fermentation a reaction that eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells can use to obtain energy from food when oxygen levels are low
photsynthesis a series of chemical reactions that convert light energy, water, and carbon dioxide into the food energy molecule glucose, and give off oxygen
cell theory the theory that states that all living things are made of one or more cells, the cell is the smallest unit of life, and all new cells come from existing cells
molecule the smallest physical unit of an element
protien a long chain of amino
lipid a large macromolecule that does not dissolve in water, used for energy storage, communication, and has protective membranes
cell membrane a flexible covering that protects the inside of a cell from the environment
cell wall a stiff structure outside the cell membrane that protects a cell from attack by viruses and other harmful organisms
cytoplasm the liquid part of a cell inside the cell membrane; contains salts and other molecules
cytoskeleton a network of threadlikeproteins joined together that gives a cell its shape and helps it move
organelle membrane surrounded component of a eukaryotic cell with a specialized function
nucleus part of a eukaryotic cell that directs cell activity and contains genetic information stored in DNA
vacuoles organelles that store food, water, and waste material
cell cycle a cycle growth, development, and division that most cells in an organism go through
interphase the period during the cell cycle of a cell's growth and development
centromere a structure that holds sister chromotids together
daughter cell the two new cells that result from mitosis and cytokinesis
cytoplasm gel like substance that fills the cell
cell wall rigid structure that surrounds plant cell-give shape and support
cell membrane thin structure that surrounds a cell
tissue a group of similar types of cells that work together to carry out
organ a group of different tissues working together to perform a particular job
organ system a group of organs that work together and perform a specific task
integumentary system includes al the external vocerings of the body, including skin, nails, and hair

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