Serve Safe Manager

Print this FlashCard
Question Answer What are the 5 levels of storage shelves in order from top to bottom? Cooked/ReadyWhole FishWhole MeatGround BeefPoultry NRA National Restaurant Association Foodborne illness Disease transmitted to people by food Foodborne-illness outbreak TWO or more people affected by SAME food 7 Challenges to Food Safety Time, Language and Culture, Literacy and Education, Pathogens, Unapproved suppliers, High Risk Populations, Staff Turnover High Risk Population More likely to get sick (elderly, infants) 8 Costs of Foodborn Illness to Operation Loss of Customers and SalesLoss of ReputationNegative Media ExposureLowered Staff MoraleLawsuits/Legal FeesStaff Missing WorkIncreased Insurance PremiumsStaff Retraining Spoilage Decline in Food Quality (Taste, Appearance) Contamination Presence of harmful substances in food Types of Food Contaminants Pathogens, Chemicals, Physical Objects, Unsafe practices 5 Ways food becomes "UNSAFE" 1.) Purchased from Unsafe Source2.) Failure to cook food properly3.) Holding food at incorrect temperatures4.) Using contaminated equipment5.) Poor Hygine 4 Key factors contributing to food safety issues 1.) Time-Temperature Abuse2.) Cross-Contamination3.) Poor Personal Hygiene4.) Poor Cleaning and Sanitizing Time-Temperature Abuse When food has STAYED TOO LONG at Temperatures that are good for the growth of pathogens 3 Types of Time-Temp Abuse 1.) Food not held or stored at correct temp2.) Food is not cooked or reheated enough to kill pathogens3.) Food not cooled properly Cross-Contamination Transfer of pathogens from one surface or food to another 3 Ways Cross-Contamination can Cause foodborne illness 1.) Contaminated ingredients added 2 food w/ no additional cooking2.) Ready to eat food touches contaminated surfaces3.) Contaminated Food touches/drips onto cooked or RTE 2 More Ways X-Contamination can cause foodborne illness 4.) Food handler touches contaminated food before touching RTE Food5.) Contaminated wiping cloths touch food contact surfaces 4 Ways poor personal hygiene can cause foodborne illness 1.) Failure to wash hands after resteroom2.) Cough/Sneeze on food3.) Touch/Scratch Wounds then touch food4.) Work while sick 4 Ways Pathogens can be spread to food by improperly cleaned/sanitized equipment 1.) Equipment not washed, rinsed or sanitized btwn uses2.) Food-Contact Surfaces WIPED instead of WASHED, RINSED and SANITIZED3.) Wiping cloths NOT stored in sanitizer solution between uses4.) Sanitizing solutions not @ required levels to sanitize TCS Food Time/Temperature Control Sensitive Food: Requires time and temp control for safety 10 Types of TCS Food Milk & Dairy, Eggs, Meat, Poultry, Fish, Shelfish and Crustaceans, Baked Potatoes, Heat-treated Plant Food (rice, beans, veggies), Tofu/ Soy Protien/Meat Alternatives, Sprouts/Sprout Seeds, Sliced Melons/Tomatoes/Cut Leafy Greens & Untreated Garlic Oil All eggs are considered TCS food EXCEPT Eggs treated to eliminate nontyhpoidal Salmonella Ready to Eat (RTE) Food that can be eaten without further preparation, washing or cooking 5 RTE Example Groups Cooked Food, Washed Fruit and Vegetables, Deli meat, Bakery items, Sugar/Spices/Seasonings Like TCS food, RTE food also Requires careful handling to prevent contamination Immune System Body's Defense against Illness 3 High Risk Populations for Foodborne Illness 1.) Preschool-age children2.) Elderly People3.) People w/ Comprimised immune systems (Aids, Chemo, Organ transplants, etc.) SOP Standard Operating Proceedures: (Key Practices for Ensuring Food Safety) 5 FDA Reccomended Food Safety Responsibilities of a Manager 1.) Food not prepared in private home2.) Non-foodhandlers restricted from prep, storage and dishwashing areas3.) Maintanance/Delivery workers follow food safety4.) Monitor Staff Handwashing5.) Inspect deliveries for approved source & Temp 3 More FDA Food Safety Resonsibilities 1.) Monitor Food handlers to ensure TCS food is cooked to required temps (Check temp with calibrated thermometers)2.) Monitor Food Handlers to make sure food is cooled rapidly3.) Monitor temperature and concentration of sanitizer solutions 4 Final FDA Food Safety Responsibilities 1.) Notify customers they must use clean tableware when returning to self-service area2.) Ensure staff is handling RTE w/ proper utensils/Single Use Gloves3.) Train Staff in food safety (AND ALLERGY AWARENESS)4.) Require staff to report illnesses Of the Three Types of Contaminants (Biological, Chemical and Physical) Which is most dangerous? Pathogens (Biological) Microrganisms Small, Living Organisms that can only be seen trough a microscope (MANY are HARMLESS BUT SOME can Cause illness) Microrganisms that can cause illness PATHOGENS Some pathogens produce poisons called_______ that make you sick TOXINS 4 Types of Pathogens Viruses, Parasites, Bacteria and Fungi Many Viruses, Bacteria and Parasites can cause an illness cannot be _______ Seen, Smelled or Tasted ______can change the look/Smell or Taste of a Food but may not make people sick Fungi 3 Ways Pathogens are easily passed 1.) Person-Person2.) Sneezing or Vomiting onto food or food-contact surfaces3.) Touching Dirty Food-Contact Surfaces/Equipment then touching food FDA "Big 6" Pathogens Highly Contagious and can cause severe symptoms1.) Shigella 2.) Salmonella3.) Nontyphoidal Samonella (NTS)4.) Shiga Toxin-Producing E.Coli (STEC)5.) Hepatitis A6.) Norovirus STEC Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) Bacteria Single-Celled, Living, Microorganisms that can spoil food and cause foodborne illness 5 Basic Shared Characteristics of Bacteria Location (Can be found almost everywhere)Detection (Cannot be seen/smelled or tastedGrowth (Grows in rapid numbers in correct conditions)Toxin Production (Some bacteria produces toxins in food as it grows/dies)Prevention (Time/Temp Control 6 Conditions Bacteria Needs to Grow (FAT TOM) Food, Acidity, Temperature Time, Oxygen, Moisture In optimal conditions, most bacteria can reproduce in __________ 20 Minutes 2 Shapes of Bacteria Cocci and Bacilli Cocci Bacteria Sphere-Shaped Bacilli Bacteria Rod-Shaped Aerobe Needs oxygen to grow Obligate Anaerobe Requires Absence of Oxygen to Grow Faccilitative Anaerobe Grows with or without oxygen Microaerophile Requires ONLY SMALL AMMOUNTS of Oxygen to grow TCS foods have a PH of______ or Higher 4.6 Bacteria Grows best in food that is ________ to slightly _______ with a PH of ________ to __________ Neutral, Slightly Acidic (7.5-4.6) Common Foods w/ ideal PH for Bacterial growth Bread, Raw Chicken, Canteloupe, Milk, Cooked Corn Bacteria Grow Rapidly between temperatures of _____ and ________ 41 & 135 Degrees Fahrenheit Amount of Moisture available in food for bacteria growth is called Water Activity (AW) The higher the Water Activity Value, the _____ More availible moisture exists in food Water Activity Scale 0.0-1.0 Food With a Water Activity of _____ or higher is ideal for growing bacteria .85 3 TCS Food Parameters PH above 4.6AW above .85High Starch and Protien Lag Phase Adjustment phase of bacteria introduced to food (Inhibits growth) To prevent food from becoming unsafe, we must prolong the ______ ________ Lag Phase How to prolong Lag Phase Control conditions for growth (Time, Temp, Oxygen, Moisture and PH) Log Phase When bacteria start splitting (Growth Phase) (Often every 20 minutes) Stationary Phase Point at which bacteria is growing and dying at same rate Death Phase When dying bacteria outnumbers growing bacteria _______ Food helps keep it safe by prolonging the _____ Phase Refrigerating, Lag Spore Form taken by bacteria to keep from dying when they lack nutrients. Often found in dirt Only _____ shaped Bacteria or ________ can form spores Rod, Bacilli Sporulation Spore Formation Germination Reversion of spore to vegetative cell True or False: Spores can resist heat and survive cooking temperatures True; (This can be prevented by storing food at correct temp) Bacillus Cereus Spore-Forming Bacteria Found in Dirt, Common in cooked rice dishes (Rice pudding and fried rice, etc.), veggies, meats and milk Most Common Symptoms of Bacillus Cereus (2) Diarrhea, Vomiting Best way to prevent Bacillus Cereus Time and Temperature Control Listeria Monocytogenes Bacteria that grows in cool, moist environment, (found in dirt, water and plants) 3 Foods Commonly linked with Listeria Raw Meat, Unpasteruized Dairy, RTE Food (Deli Meat, Hot Dogs, Soft Cheeses) Most Vulnerable population to Listeria (Listerosis) Pregnant Women and Newborns 3 Best ways to prevent Listeria Time and Temp Control (Grows under refrigeration) (Also, don't use unpasteruized dairy and cook raw meat to min internal temps) STEC (Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli) E. Coli; found in intestings of Cattle and Infected People. Often contaminates meat during slaughtering. 2 Foods commonly linked with STEC (E.coli) Ground Beef (raw and undercooked), Contaminated Produce 4 Common Symptoms of Listeria Sepsis, Pnehmonia, Menengitis, Miscarriage 3 Common Symptoms of STEC (E.Coli) Diarrhea (Eventually bloody), Abdominal Cramps, Kidney Failure (Severe Cases) Best Way to Prevent Campylobacter Jejuni Time and Temperature Control 4 Foods Commonly linked with Campylobacter Jejuni Poulty, Meats, Stews/Gravies and WATER 5 Symptoms of Campylobacter Jejuni Diarrhea (May be watery or bloody), Vomiting, Abdominal Cramps, Fever, Headaches Clostridium Perfringen Found as spores in dirt and in the intestines of animals and humans Best way to prevent Clostridium Perfringen Time and Temperature Control 2 Symptoms of Clostridium Perfringen Diarrhea, Severe Abdominal Pain 3 Foods commonly linked with Clostridium Perfringen Meat, Poulty and foods made with meat and poultry (Gravy, stews, etc) Clostridium Botulinum, Where it is most commonly found (2) and (3) conditions that inhibit it's growth Causes Botulism; Often found in water and dirt as spores; does not grow well in refrigerated, highly acidic or low moisture foods True or False, Botunilum can grow without oxygen True True or False, Without treatment, death from botulism is likely True (4) Foods commonly linked to Clostridium Botulinum Incorrectly Canned Food, Reduced Oxygen Packaged (ROP) Food, Temp-abused foods (Like baked potatoes), Untreated garlic and oil mixtures ROP Reduced Oxygen Packaged Foods Most common symptoms of Clostridium Botulinum (Botulism) (2) Initial and (4) Later) Initially: Nausea and VomitingLater: Weakness, Double vision, difficulty speaking or swallowing Best way to prevent Clostridium Botulinum Time and Temp conrol Nontyphoidal Salmonella Source and amount required to make someone sick Carried naturally by many farm animals; even a small amount can make a person sick Atypical Foods Nuts, Melons, Sprouts (4) Foods linked to Nontyphoidal Salmonella Poultry and Eggs, Meat, Milk and Dairy, Produce with proper acidity and water content): Tomatoes, pepper and cantelopes (4) Symptoms of Nontyphoidal Salmonella Diarrhea, Abdominal cramps, Vomiting, FEVER Best way to control Nontyphoidal Salmonella Prevent Cross-Contamination Salmonella Typhi and what carries it Typhoid Fever; Lives ONLY in humans (not farm animals) and is carried in bloodstream and intestines (2) Foods commonly linked with Salmonella Typhi RTE, Beverages (6) common symptoms of Salmonella Typhi High FEVER, Weakness, Abdominal pain, headache, loss of apetite, rash Best Way to Control Salmonella Typhi Prevent Cross-Contamination Shigella Spp. Found in feces of humans with illness (Can be transferred by flies) (3) Common symptoms of Shigella Spp. Bloody Diarrhea, Abdominal Pain and Cramps Best way to control Shigella Spp. Practice personal hygiene (keep workers with diarrhea away from food handling, control flies, wash hands) (2) Food Categories Commonly linked to Shigella Spp. Foods easily contaminated by hands (Salads containing TCS– Potato, Tuna, Shrimp, Macaroni and Chicken)Food that has made contact with contaminated water (Produce) True or False, Reheating food kills bacteria FALSE; toxins from bacterial contamination CANNOT be killed with heat Staphylococcus Aureus Found in humans in hair, nose, throat and infected cuts; often transferred by people touching it and handle food without washing hands (4) Common symptoms of Staphylococcus Aureus Nausea, Vomiting/Retching, Abdominal CrampsVomiting (2) Foods commonly linked with Staphylococcus Aureus Salads containing TCS foods (egg, tuna, chicken, macaroni), Deli Meat Best way to control Staphylococcus Aureus Practice personal hygine Vibro Vulnificus and Vibrio Parahaemolyticus Found in waters where Shellfish are harvested; can grow very rapidly (Can lead to death) (5) Common symptoms of Vibro Vulnificus and Vibrio Parahaemolyticu Diarrhea, Abdominal cramps/nausea, Vomiting, Low-Grade Fever and Chills Food commonly associated with Vibro Vulnificus and Vibrio Parahaemolyticu Oysters Best way to control Vibro Vulnificus and Vibrio Parahaemolyticu Purchase from Approved, Reputable Suppliers Virus Smallest of Microbial Food Contaminants; Carried by human beings and animals (REQUIRE LIVING HOST TO GROW) (3) Non-Human Sources of Virus Transmission Food, Water or Contaminated Surfaces 3 Ways to prevent spread of viruses Prohibit food handlers who are vomiting/have diarrhea/jaundice from working,Make sure food handlers wash their hands regularly and correctly,Avoid bare-hand contact with RTE food 2 Major Foodborne Viruses Hepatitis A and Norovirus Hepatitis A Found mainly in feces of people infected with it (can contaminate water and many types of food) Hepatitis A is most commonly linked to which 2 foods? RTE Food (Also shellfish from contaminated water) (5) Symptoms of Hep A Fever,General Weakness,Nausea,Abdominal Pain,Jaundice (Key Symptom (Appears Later) Norovirus Common in RTE food, has been linked to contaminated water FBI Food Borne Illness Norovirus is is most commonly linked to which 2 foods RTE Food (Also SHELLFISH from contaminated water) Best way to control Hep A Practicing Personal Hygiene Best way to control Norovirus Practicing Personal Hygiene Most common FBI (foodborne illness) Norovirus Onset time of Norovirus 24-48 hrs Onset time of Hep A 15-50 days Duration of Norovirus 24-28 hrs Duration of Hep A 1-2 weeks or LONGER Only FBI transferred via food Hep A Besides Food, Hep A can also be transfered through Fecal to mouth contact Parasite Not as common as virus or bacteria, Cannot grow in food (need living host) (3) Common sources of parasites Seafood, Wild Game and Food/Produce processed w/ contaminated water Best way to control parasites Purchase food from approved, reputable suppliers Infection Occurs when food with pathogens is consumed and pathogens are trasferred to intestines Intoxications Occur when food with toxin is consumed 4 Parasites Anisakis Simplex, Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia Duodenalis, Cyclospora Cayetanesis Anisakis Simplex Parasite commonly found in fish (2) Symptoms of Anisakis Simplex Parasite Tingling in Throat, Coughing up worms 2 ways to prevent Anisakis Simplex Parasite (Best and second best) Purchase food from approved reputable suppliers (Also cook to minimum internal temp) Cryptosporidium Parvum Parasite found in feces of infected people (common in daycares) (2) Foods commonly linked to Cryptosporidium Parvum Parasite Contaminated Water, Produce (4) Cryptosporidium Parvum Parasite Symptoms Watery Diarrhea, Abdominal Cramps, Nausea, Weight Loss Protazoa Parasite transmitted through water Best and second best way to control Cryptosporidium Parvum Parasite Purchase from approved, reputable suppliers, ALSO freeze, salt or cure fish to kill larvae Giardia Duodenalis Parasite found in feces of infected people (2) Foods commonly linked to Giardia Duodenalis parasite Incorrectly treated water, produce Best way to control Giardia Duodenalis parasite Purchase from approved, reputable suppliers Giardia Duodenalis Parasite Symptoms (1) Initial and (3) Later Initial: FeverLater: Abdominal Cramps, Diarrhea, Nausea Cyclospora cayetanesis Parasite found in contaminated water and associated with produce irrigated or washed with it. Also found in feces of infected people (2) Foods commonly associated with Cyclospora cayetanesis parasite Incorrectly treated water, Produce such as berries, lettuce or basil (6) Common symptoms of Cyclospora cayetanesis parasite Nausea, Ab cramps, mild fever, diarrhea alternating with constipation, loss of weight, loss of appitite (2) Best ways to control Cyclospora cayetanesis parasite Purchase from approved, reputable suppliers, WASH HANDS Fungi Pathogens that only SOMETIMES make people sick (Mostly Just Spoil Food); Found in plants, dirt, air, water and food (Mold and Yeast are examples) Mold and Yeast are examples of Fungi Some mold produces toxins like ______ Aflatoxins True or False: Fungi can be killed by freezing False; slows the growth only Aflatoxin; produced by Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus Parasticus can cause Liver Disease (5) Foods that have been associated with Aflatoxins Corn and Corn Products, Peanuts & Peanut products, Cottonseed, milk and tree nuts Yeast Type of fungi; makes food ferment Biological Toxins Naturally occurring toxins in Mushrooms, Seafood and plants Systemic Toxins Naturally occuring in trypes of fish like Puffers, Moray eels and freshwater minnows Shellfish Toxins Oysters can be contaminated by eating algae that contains toxins 5 Types (Scientific Names) of Seafood Toxins Histamine, Ciguatoxin, Saxitoxin, Brevetoxin & Domic Acid Histamine Seafood toxin produced by bacteria on fish that is Time -Temp abused (2) Best ways to prevent Seafood Toxins Purchase from approved, reputable suppliers & Prevent Time-Temparature Abuse Symptoms of Histamine Toxin (4) Initial and (2) Later Reddening of face/neck, sweating, headache, burning or tinglingPossibly later: Diarreha, Vomiting (4) Most common fish species linked to Histamine Toxin Tuna, Bonito, Mackerel, Mahi Mahi Ciguatoxin Neurotoxin found in marine algae, spread to bigger predatory fish by eating smaller fish that eat contaminated algae (4) Symptoms of Ciguatoxin exposure Reversal of hot and cold sensations, vomiting, tingling in fingers, lips or toes, muscle or joint pain 4 Fish Species commonly linked to Ciguatoxin Grouper, Barracuda, Jacks, Snapper Saxitoxin Toxin found in colder waters (Pacific and New England Coasts), spread by mollusks filtering toxic algae NOT DESTROYED BY COOKING OR FREEZING (4) Mollusk Species linked to Saxitoxin Mussels, Clams, Oysters, Scallops (5) Symptoms of Saxitoxin Poisoning Numbess, Dizziness, Tingling of mouth, face, arms and legs, Vomiting, Diarrhea Brevetoxin Found in Warmer waters (Gulf of Mexico, Florida, Carribean, pread by mollusks filtering toxic algae NOT DESTROYED BY COOKING OR FREEZING 3 Mollusk Species linked to Brevetoxin Clams, Mussels, Oysters (6) Symptoms of Brevetoxin Poisoning Numbness, Dizziness, Tingling of lips & tongue, Vomiting, Diarrhea, reversal of hot and cold Domoic Acid Shellfish toxin; spread by mollusks filtering toxic algae NOT DESTROYED BY COOKING OR FREEZING; found in coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest and East Coast of Canada 4 Mollusk Species commonly linked with Domoic Acid Clams, Mussels, Oysters, Scallops Symptoms of Domoic Acid Poisoning (3) initial (5) Possibly Later Initial: Vomiting, Dizziness, Ab PainPossibly Later: Confusion, Memory Loss, Disorientation, Seizure, coma (3) Sources of natural plant toxins Toxic Plants (Fool's parsley or wild turnips), Honey from bees allowed to harvest toxic plant nectar, Undercooked kidney beans True or False; Mushroom toxins can be eliminated through cooking or freezing False Leading cause of foodborn illness Viruses Foodborne illnesses linked to mushrooms are almost always caused by Amateur Hunters collecting wild mushrooms What are the 6 Most COMMON Symptoms of Foodborne illness? Diarrea, Vomiting, Fever, Nausea, Ab Cramps and Jaundice Most important way to prevent foodborne illness from BACTERIA Control Time and Temp E.Coli is most commonly linked to what type of food? Raw Ground Beef Most important way to prevent foodborne illness from viruses Practice good personal hygiene Parasites are most commonly linked with which type of food? Seafood What contaminant is most likely to cause a reversal of hot and cold sensations Toxins 6 Pathogens found in HIGH NUMBERS in Infected Person's Feces (Highly Infectious) Hep A, Norovirus, Salmonella Typhi, Nontyphoidal Salmonella, Shigella spp. and E.Coli Which FAT TOM condition is easiest to control? TIME Physical Contaminants Bones left in food, glass, wood, fingernails, stables, bandages, jewlery, Dirt, Pits 3 Most common symptoms of Physical Contamination Bleeding, Dental Damage, Choking Chemical Contaminants Sanitizers, Cleaners, Polishes, Machine Lubes, Pesticides, Deoderizers, First Aid Products, Certain types of kitchenware (Zinc, pewter, copper and painted pottery) 2 Common Symptoms of chemical poisoning Vomiting and Diarrhea 5 Ways to prevent Deliberate Contamination of Food (ALERT) Assure: Make sure sources are safeLook: Monitor food security in facilityEmployees: Know who is in your facility & conduct BR checksReports: Keep food defense info & conduct random self-inspectionsThreat: Make a plan for suspicious activity Food Allergen Protein or Ingredient in a food that some people are sensitive too Symptoms of Food Allergy Nausea, Wheezing/Shortness of Breath, Hives/Rashes, Swelling of body parts, Vomiting/Diarrhea, Ab Pain *Most Common Food Items containing Allergens (Big 8) Milk, Eggs, Fish, Wheat, Soy, Peanuts, Crustacean Shellfish (Crab, lobster, shrimp, Tree Nuts Big 8 Most common foods containing allergens Which percentage of total United States food-realated allergic reactions are caused soley by Big 8 foods? 90% True or False; Hep B and C, HIV and Tuberculosis can be spread through food FALSE If food handler has sore throat and fever Restrict food handler from working with or around food (Unless you primarily serve high-risk populations) If food handler has Vomiting, Diarrhea or Jaundice Exclude them from operation until they have had no symptoms for 24 hours and a doctors note If foodhandler has been diagnosed with Norovirus, Shigella, Nontyphodial Salmonella, E.Coli and is vomiting or has diarrhea Exclude them from Operation indefinitely If food handler is diagnosed with Hepatitis A or Samonella Typhi Exclude them from operation indefinitely When has food been Time-Temperature Abused? Any time it remains between 41-125 Degrees F. Food Pathogens grow especially fast at what Temperature range? 70-125 Degrees F 3 Types of Thermometers Commonly used in restaurants Bimetallic Stemmed ThermometersThermocouplesThermistors Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometer Checks temps from 0-220 Degrees F through a metal stem (Insert into food up to dimple–Sensing Area) 3 Features Thermometers Should Have Calibration NutEasy-to-read markingsDimple Thermocouples and Thermistors Check temperatures through metal probe and displays them digitally (Do not have to insert them as far bc sensing area is on tip) Types of probes on Thermocouples and Thermistors Immersion: To check temperatures of liquidsSurface: Measure the temp of flat cooking surfacesPenetration: Measure internal temp of foodsAir: Check temps inside coolers and ovens What type of device is used to record Time-Temperature Abuse during the Delivery of Food? Time-Temperature Indicator Time Temperature Indicator Device attached to packaging by supplier that indicates if food has been Time-Temperature abused during storage or shipment (Indicated by permanent change in color in Time-Temperature Window) Which type of thermometer can read temperature without touching an item's surface? Infared Thermometer A thermometer used to measure food must be ACCURATE to what temperature +/- 2 Degrees F (+/- 1 Degree C) Key-Drop Delivery Key is given to supplier to make deliveries after hours Approved Suppliers Pass inspection and can produce an Inspection Report; Also compliant with State, Local and Federal Laws 8 Components of an Inspection Report for a Supplier Recieving/Storing, Processing, Shipping, Cleaning/Sanitizing, Personal Hygiene, Staff Training, Recall Program, HACCP or other Food Safety Program Inspection Reports should be based on the ______ and ________ set by the FDA GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) or GAP (Good Agricultural Practices) ROP Reduced-Oxygen Packaged Food How to check temp of Meat, Poultry and Fish Insert Thermometer stem or probe into thickest part (typically the center) How to check temp of ROP Food Insert thermometer stem/probe between two packages How to check temp of Other packaged food Open package and insert stem/probe into food Receiving Temp requirement for Cold TCS Food 41 F or Lower (unless otherwise specified) Receiving Temp requirement for Hot TCS Food 135 F or Higher Receiving Temp requirement for Frozen food Frozen Solid Receiving Temp requirement for Live Shellfish Air Temp of 45 F, Internal Temp NO GREATER than 50 F After receiving live shellfish, should be cooled to _____ or lower in 4 hours 41 F Minimum Acceptance Receiving temp shucked shellfish 45 F or lower (must be cooled to 41F or lower in 4 hours) Receiving temp for milk 45 F or Lower Receiving temp for shell eggs Air temp of 45 F or lower Live shellfish must be received with what documentation? Shellfish ID tag Most important factor in choosing a food supplier It has been inspected and complies with local, state and federal laws Large ice crystals on food are indicative of Time-temperature abuse If serving raw or under-cooked fish, it must be _______ when receive Correctly frozen What should you do with an item that has been recalled? Remove it from inventory and place in secure location Reconditioning Instead of rejecting cans with contaminated surfaces, you can clean and sanitize and accept them (NO DENTS) Carcasses and meat packages should have an ______ ______ inspection stamp Shellfish ID tag Must be with shipment; indicate where shellfish was harvested Shellfish ID tags must be kept on file for _______ _______ from the last date the shellfish was used 90 days Labels for food that was packaged on-site for Retail Sale must include (6) Common NameQuantityList of IngredientsList of Artificial Colors/FlavorsName & Place of Biz of Manufacturer, packager or distributorSource of each major food allergen contained in food Date Marking Date written on refrigerated food indicating when food must be sold, eaten or thrown out Ready-To-Eat TCS Food MUST INCLUDE Date Marking if it will be held longer than _______ ______ 24 hours When combining food, Discard Date of the dish should be based on ________ Earliest prepared food Food Storage air temp thermometers must be accurate within 3 degrees F (1.5 C) Food Storage order (RTE, Seafood, Whole cuts Beef/Pork, Ground Meat and fish, Whole and ground Poultry) is determined by ______ Minimum internal cooking temperature (lowest on top, highest on bottom) True or False, Ground Fish and Meat can be stored above whole cuts of beef and pork True Always store _______ food at temperatures recommended by manufacturer or at 41 or lower ROP UHT Ultra High Temperature Food (Pasteruized) Storage Requirements for Live Shellfish (3) Stored in original containerStored at air temp of 41 F or LowerKeep Shellstock ID tags on file for 90 days after last date of use Food must be stored at least _____ off the floor 6 inches True or False: As long as you make room, it doesn't matter how much food you pack into walk in FALSE; can prevent good airflow and lead to Time-temp issues Raw meat, poultry and seafood should always be stored at the ______ of the walk in because it is ______ Rear, Coldest How long can TCS food be stored if it was held at 41 F? 7 days Slacking Gradual thawing of frozen food to prepare for deep frying (Allows even heating during cooking) When slacking frozen food, don't let it get any warmer than ______ 41 F When does ROP fish have to be removed from packaging (2) Before thawing under refrigerationBefore or immediately after thawing under running water Pooled Eggs Multiple cracked eggs in same container Special handling for pooled eggs Cook or cool to 41 F immediately after mixing Do not serve raw seed sprouts to ______ High risk populations Minimum internal cooking temp for poultry, stuffed meat, seafood or pasta & dishes 165 F for 15 seconds Minimum internal cooking temp for foods containing cooked TCS ingredients 165 F for 15 seconds Minimum internal cooking temp for Ground meat, injected meat, mechanically tenderized meat, Ratites (including ostrich and emu), Ground Seafood and Shell eggs (HOT HELD FOR SERVICE) 155 F for 15 seconds Minimum internal cooking temp for Steaks, Chops of Pork/Beef/Lamb, Seafood, Commercially raised game and shell eggs (SERVED IMMEDIATELY) 145 F for 15 seconds Minimum internal cooking temp for Roasts of Pork, Beef, Veal and Lamb 145 F for 4 minutes Alternative Minimum internal cooking temp for Certain types of Roasts 130 F for 112 minutes Minimum internal cooking temp for fruits, grains, veggies, and legumes that will be HOT HELD for service 135 F Minimum internal cooking temp for TEA 175 F Minimum internal cooking temp for fish, shellfish, crustaceans 145 F for 15 seconds Meat, Seafood, Poultry and Eggs cooked in Microwave must reach _______ (Temp) 165 F Let covered food stand for ______ minutes to let temperature even out 2 Check food temp in at least ____ places to ensure proper temp 2 When partially cooking during prep, DO NOT COOK food for longer than ______ _______ 60 minutes T/F When partially cooking during prep, it must be cooled immediately after cooling TRUE When cooling TCS food, it must be cooled from 135 F- 70F within _______ _____ Two hours After TCS is cooled from 135-70F in initial two hours after cooking, it must be cooled to _______ within the next ______ ______ 41 F, 4 hours If food has not been cooled to 70F within 2 hours of cooking ______ it must be reheated and cooled AGAIN T/F if you are reheating food that will be served immediately (ex: precooked beef for sandwich), it can be cooked to any temp and served TRUE **As long as it was cooked and cooled correctly the first time** TCS food reheated for Hot Holding must reach _____ for ______ 165 F, 15 Seconds Commercially processed and packaged RTE foods (ex: cheese sticks, veggies) must be heated to internal temp of _____ before serving 135 F Minimum cooking temp for Poultry 165F for 15 sec Minimum cooking temp for Pork vs. Pork Roast 145F 15 sec/ 145 F for 4 min Minimum cooking temp for Ground Beef 155F for 15 sec Minimum cooking temp for Fish 145F for 15 sec 4 Correct Methods for Thawing Food In a fridge @ 41F or lowerSubmerge under running, drinkable water @ 70F or lowerThaw in microwave (IF COOKING IMMEDIATELY AFTER)Thaw as part of the cooking process (As long as it reaches required min internal temp) 4 Ways to cool cooked food Ice-Water BathStirring food with ice paddleUse Blast Chiller or Tumble ChillerAdding Ice or Cold Water as ingredient Minimum internal Cooking temp for Eggs, Meat, Poultry and Seafood cooked in Microwave 165 F Minimum internal temp for Eggs that will be HOT HELD 155F for 15 seconds A food handler can cool a stockpot of Clam Chowder by placing it in a ________ Sink full of ice water Hot Food should be held at an internal temp of ______ 135F or higher Cold Food should be held at an internal temp of ______ 41F or lower How often should you check food temp when holding? Every 4 Hours To leave time for corrective action and avoid having to throw food away, check temp every _____ hours 2 T/F You can use hot-holding equipment to reheat food FALSE (Does not pass through temp danger zone fast enough) How long can you hold cold food without temperature control if it was properly refrigerated @ 41F or lower prior? 6 hours Discard Time for cold food removed from refrigeration and hot temperature controlled 6 hours When holding/serving cold food w/o temp control, what is the max temperature it can reach before you must throw it away? 70F (If it gets hotter, throw it away How long can you hold hot food w/o temp control assuming it was held @ 135F or hotter prior to removal? 4 hours Maximum distance between sneeze guards and self-service counters 14 inches Food Safety Management System Group of Practices and Procedures intended to prevent foodborne illness by actively controlling risks and hazards throughout the flow of food Programs that should be part of Food Safety Management System (8) Personal HygieneFood Safety TrainingSupplier Selection and SpecificationQuality Control/AssuranceCleaning/SanitationStandard Operating Proceedures (SOP)Facility Design/Equip Maintain Pest-Control 5 Common Risk Factors for Foodborne Illness Purchasing from unsafe suppliersFailing to cook food correctlyHolding food @ incorrect tempUsing contaminated equipmentPoor personal hygiene CCP Critical Control Points; Points in cooking process where identified hazards can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to safe levels Critical Limit For Each CCP, establish minimum and maximum limits to prevent/eliminate hazard or reduce it to a safe level (ex: Chicken must be cooked to min internal temp of 165 for 15 seconds) What are the 2 main FBI risks associated with MAP, Vacuum-packed and sous vide foods? Listeria and Botulism List 7 HACCP Principles in Order 1.) Conduct Hazard Analysis2.) Determine CCPs (Critical Control Points)3.) Establish Critical Limits4.) Establish Monitoring Procedures5. ID Corrective Actions6.) Verify that system works7.) Establish record keeping & documentation procedures Active Managerial Control Proactive process in which manager controls 5 Common Risk Factors for foodborne illness (Unsafe sources, improper cooking, improper holding temp, contaminated equipment & poor hygiene) HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point; system for achieving active managerial control by IDing significant, bio, chem or physical hazards at specific points in product flow An effective HACCP should be based on a _____ ______ Written Plan Floor-mounted equipment legs should be at least _____ high.. UNLESS _______ 6 inches (Unless base is sealed to floor) Tabletop equipment legs should be at least ______ high…UNLESS _______ 4 inches (Unless sealed to countertop) Best way to prevent backflow is to avoid creating a _______ cross-connection Vacuum Breaker Mechanical device that prevents backsiphonage Cross-Connection Physical link between safe water and dirty water (Comes from drains, sewers or other wastewater sources) (DANGEROUS) Why are cross-connections dangerous? Backflow can occur, contaminating clean water Minimum lighting Intensity requirement for Prep Area 50 foot-candles (540 Lux) Minimum lighting Intensity requirement for Handwashing, buffet, produce displays, utensil storage areas, wait stations, restrooms and inside reach-in fridge 20 foot-candles (215 Lux) Minimum lighting Intensity requirement for Walk-In coolers and freezers, dry storage and dining rooms (during cleaning) 10 foot-candles (108 Lux) Non-public water sources should be tested @ least ______ __ ______ Once a year 4 Approved Water Sources Approved Public Water MainsRegularly tested and maintained private water sourcesClosed, Portable water containersWater Transport Vehicles 2 Most important Food Safety Features of Flooring, Wall and Ceiling materials Smooth and Durable NSF Creates national standards for foodservice equipment Which organization creates national standards for foodservice equipment? NSF What 3 pieces of information should be posted on dishwashing equipment? Chemical ConcentrationWater TemperatureWater Pressure What is the only COMPLETELY RELIABLE method for preventing backflow? Air Gap If someone drops the end of a hose into a mop bucket and turns water on to fill it, what danger did they create? Created a Cross-Connection Which area of an operation is usually required to be the brightest? Prep Area Surfaces underneath dumpsters must be ______ with ______ or _______ Paved, Concrete or Asphault For Heat Sanitizing to work, items must be soaked in hot water that is at least ______ for at least _______ 171F, 30 Seconds Sanitizing Reducing pathogens on a surface to safe levels (Heat or Chemicals) 3 Common Types of Chemical Sanitizers Chlorine, Iodine and Quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) 5 Critical Factors Affecting Sanitizer Effectiveness Concentration, Water Temp, Contact Time, Water Hardness and PH Concentration Ratio of sanitizer to water Sanitizer Concentration is measured in PPM (Parts Per Million) Minimum submersion time for Chemical Sanitizing 30 seconds Recommended sanitizer Concentration, Temp and Contact time for chlorine 50-99 PPM, 75-100+ F, > or = 7 sec Recommended sanitizer Concentration and Contact time for Iodine 12.5-25 PPM, 68F, > or = 30 sec Recommended sanitizer Concentration and Contact time for Quats 500 PPM (or as per manufacturer's recommendation), 75F, > or = 30 sec Minimum temperature of Final Sanitizing Rinse of High-Temperature Sanitizing Machine 180F (165F for stationary rack, single temp) Requirements for each sink in 3-compartment hand washing dish station Sink 1: Min Temp 110F, Water & Detergent mixSink 2: Clean Water (Or spray rinse)Sink 3: Water and Sanitizer or Hot water What is the difference between cleaning and sanitizing? Cleaning is the process of removing food and other types of dirt from a surface; Sanitizing is the process of reducing the number of pathogens on surface to a safe level If a food-contact surface is in constant use, it must be cleaned and sanitized every ______ _______ 4 hours Maximum Registering Thermometer Required for measuring the sanitizing rinse temp in a high-temp dishwashing machine How should flatware and utensils that have been cleaned and sanitized be stored? With handles facing up Proper order of steps for cleaning and sanitizing a prep table Remove food from surface ->Wash->Rinse->Sanitize->Air Dry IPM Program Integrated Pest Management; Keeps pests out and controls/eliminates them when they get in 3 Basic Rules of IPM Program Deny Pest AccessDeny Pest Food/ShelterWork w/ licensed PCO to eliminate pests that do enter PCO Pest Control Operator Roaches can carry (4) Samonella, Fungi, Parasite Eggs and Viruses Flies can carry Shigella What 3 environmental conditions are roaches typically found in Warm, Moist & Dark Smell indicating cockroaches are present Strong, Oily The FDA inspects ALL food except ______ ______ and ______ Meat, Poultry and Eggs What government agency is responsible for inspecting meat, poultry and eggs? USDA What agency is responsible for investigating outbreaks of FBI? CDC PHS Public Health Service; Assists FDA, USDA and state/local authorities in researching causes of FBI outbreaks and investigating them Food Codes Written by regulatory authorities (ex health dept) (often differ from FDA Food Code FDA Food Code Science-Based code providing recommendations for food safety regulations 3 FDA-recommended risk designations for health inspections 1.) Priority (Most Critical)2.) Priority Foundation Items (Support a priority item)3.) Core Items (Related to general sanitation/maintenance) While correct hand washing is designated as a _______ by the FDA, having soap available is a ________ Priority, Priority Foundations When an inspector arrives at a restaurant, a manager should ask for ______ Identification Which agency enforces food safety in a restaurant? Local/State Authority What is the first task in training a large group of servers to prevent contamination of food? Assess the training needs of the servers on this topic In which training method does a trainer ask a series of questions to draw on the knowledge and experience of the learners? Guided Discussion

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *