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Editing The joining of two sections of film, creating a relationship between a shot and another shot.
Tracking shot A mobile frame that can move forward, backward, and side-to-side. Unlike a panning shot, in a tracking shot the entire camera moves, often on a dolly or a track.
Pan Camera movement that rotates side-to-side on a horizontal axis while remaining on a tripod.
Eyeline match An editing technique that typically shows a character looking off screen before cutting to what he or she sees.
Point of view shot A cinematographic technique where the camera occupies the ocular position of a person.
Proscenium arch shots A shot that includes a stage and the area surrounding the theatrical stage. A shot often used in early cinema.
Mise-en-scene All the elements placed in front of a camera. Comprises four elements: lighting, setting and props, costume and makeup, character/actor behavior.
Overlapping editing Most often an older editing technique where action is repeated.
Shot One uninterrupted run of the camera to expose the film.
Continuity editing A system of editing rules that govern the clear and consistent action and movement of characters and objects in order to maintain clear spatial relationships. The dominant editing style of Hollywood cinema.
Crosscutting An editing technique that alternates back and forth between two narrative scenes of action simultaneously.
Montage The French word for editing. A quick succession of cuts, often used to compress cinematic events and time.
Three-point lighting system The most commonly used lighting system during the Hollywood Studio Systems Era. Creates a relatively bright and even light for the scene and uses key light, fill light, and back light.
Key light The brightest light in a three-point lighting system, positioned close to the camera and used to brightly illuminate the scene.
Fill light The softer light in a three-point lighting system used to eliminate/soften the harsh shadows cast by the key light.
Cast shadows Shadows cast by a person or object.
Attached shadows Shadows created where the light does not fall.
Backlight The light in a three point lighting system positioned behind a human figure or object.
High-key lighting An extremely bright lighting system that uses three lights-key light, fill light, and back light.
Low-key lighting Very low levels of light (sometimes disregarding the key light entirely) that produce high contrast between portions of the frame.
Big Eight (five majors and three major-minors) five major: MGM, Paramount, Warner Bros., Fox, and RKOWere largest, most profitable studios in Hollywood. three major-minors: Columbia, Universal, and United Artists.
Vertical integration When a company controls and monopolizes all components in the industry.
Continuity editing A system of editing rules that govern the clear and consistent action and movement of characters and objects in order to maintain clear spatial relationships. The dominant editing style of Hollywood cinema.
Axis of action 180-degree line, the axis of action is the invisible line that the camera does not ever cross, maintaining clear and coherent spatial relationships between people and objects during editing.
Shot/reverse shot A conventional editing technique typically used in conversations where the camera frame cuts back and forth between two people.
Graphic match An editing transition that relies on the graphic similarity of shape between the first shot and the second shot.
Match on action An editing transition that ensures the continuity of movement through a cut.
Dissolve An editing transition that gradually superimposes an image onto another image, eventually fully transforming into the new image.
Wipe An editing transition from one scene to another by a vertical line passing through the screen that gradually replaces the previous image.
Iris An editing transition where a circular mask either starts a scene by opening up from black (iris out) or ends a scene by closing to black (iris in). Can also be used to emphasize detail.
Fade-in An editing transition where the image fades out to black.
Fade-out An editing transition that moves from a dark background into an image.
Cut The joining together or splicing of two strips of film.
Ellipsis Excluding parts of a story timeline or plot.
Elliptical editing An editing technique that excludes parts of the story, creating an ellipsis in the timeline or plot.
Flashback Narrative device where the story shifts to an earlier part of the events.
Flash forward Narrative device where the story shifts ahead to events in the future.
Cinematography Everything that involves the camera. Comprises four elements: quality, scale, movement, and angle.
Tint Color effect by dipping an exposed film into a dye.
Filter A slide that covers the camera lens and changes the color of the shot.
Contrast The difference between the lightest and darkest areas on the screen.
Deep space An arrangement of a shot that conveys a great sense of depth.

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