Teas science

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Term Definition
Cell is the basic organizational unit of all living things.
Cell membrane comparable to a semi-permeable plastic bag. Composed of phospholipids. There are also some transport holes, which are protient that help certain molecules and ions move in and out of the cell.
Cytoplasm the filling within the cell
Organelles groups of complex molecules that help a cell survive, each with its own unique membrane that has a difference chemical make up from the cell membrane.
Nucleus this is a small structure that contains the chromosomes and regulates the DNA of a cell. It is a defining structure of eukaryotic cells.
Chromosomes These are highly condensed, threadlike rods of DNA. short for deoxyribonucleic acid.
Chromatin This consists of the DNA and protein that make up chromosomes.
Nucleolus This structure contained within the nucleus consists of protein. it is small round, does not have a membrane, is involved in protein synthesis, and synthesizes and stores RNA.
Nuclear envelope This encloses the structures of the nucleus. It consists of inner and outer membranes made of lipids.
Nuclear pores These are involved in the exchange of material between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
Necleoplasm This is the liquid within the nucleus and is similar to cytoplasm.
Ribosomes are involved in protein synthesis from assembling amino acids in the right order to dictate RNA. Some are embedded in the rough endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi Complex this is involved in synthesizing materials such as proteins that are transported out of the cell.
Vacuoles these are sacs used for storage, digestion, and waste removal.
Vesicle This is a small organelle within a cell. It has membrane and performs varying functions, including moving materials within a cell.
Cytoskeleton consists of microtubules that help shape and support the cell.
Microtubules these are part of the cytoskeleton and help support the cell. They are made of proteins.
Cytosol This is the liquid material in the cell. It is mostly water, but also contains some floating molecules.
Cytoplasm This is a general term that refers to cytosol and the substructures found within the plasma membrane, but not within the nucleus
Endoplasmic reticulum the two types are rough and smooth. It is a tubular network that comprises the transport system of a cell. It is fused to the nuclear membrane and extends through the cytoplasm to the cel membrane
Mitochondrion These cell structures vary in terms of size and quantity. this structure performs various functions such as generating ATP, and also involved in cell growth and death.
Centrosome This is comprised of the pair of centrioles located at right angles to each other surrounded by protein. Is involved in mitosis and the cell cycle.
Centrioloes These are cylinder-shaped structures near the nucleus that are involved in cellular division. Each cylinder consists of nine groups of three microtubules. Occurs in pairs
Lysosomes This digests proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, and also transports undigested substances to the cell membrane so they can be removed. The shape depends on the material being transported.
Cilia These are appendages extending from the surface of the cell, the movement of which causes the cell to move. They can also result in fluid being moved by the cell
Flagella These are tail-like structures on the cells that use whiplike movements to help the cell move.
Interphase First stage of mitosis: the cell prepares for division by replicating its genetic and cytoplasmic material.
Prophase second stage of mitosis: The chromatin thickens into chromosomes and nuclear membrane begins to disintegrate. Pairs of centrioles move to opposite sides of the cell and spindle fibers begin to form.
Metaphase Third stage of mitosis: the spindle moves to the center of the cell and chromosome pairs align along the center of the spindle structure.
Anaphase fourth stage of mitosis: pairs of chromosomes, called sisters, begin to pull apart, and may bend. When they are separated they are called daughter chromosomes.
Telophase fifth stage of mitosis: spindle disintegrates, the nuclear membranes reform, and the chromosomes revert to chromatin.
Cytokinesis Last stage of mitosis: This is the physical splitting of the cell into two cells. occurs following telophase.
Meiosis Has the same phases as mitosis, but they happen twice. 1st phase of meiosis, chromosomes cross, genetic material is exchanged, and tetrads are separated and travel to different poles. then creating two cells that divide and result 4 genetic diff. cells.
Transverse plane divides the patient body into imaginary upper and lower halves.
Sagittal plane dives the body, or any body part, vertically into right and left sections. runs parallel to the mid line of the body
Coronal plane divides the body, or any body structure, vertically into front and back sections.
Cephalad and cephalic means towards the head
Upper respiratory system part of the respiratory system that includes the nose, nasal cavity, mouth , pharynx, and larynx.
Lower respiratory system part of the respiratory system that includes the trachea, lungs and bronchial tree.
Cilia lines the airways, that trap microbes and debris and sweep them back toward the mouth.
Pleural membrane surrounds the lungs to reduce friction between surfaces when breathing.
Larynx air passes through the throat and moves through this, it vibrates and produces sound (voice box), before it enters the trachea(windpipe)
Plasma constitutes over half of the blood volume. It is mostly water and serves as a solvent. contains proteins, ions, glucose, amino acids, hormones, and dissolved gases.
Liver produces bile then stores it in the galbladder, certain blood plasma proteins, cholesterol, stores excess clucose in the form of glycogen that can be convert back to glucose when needed, reg amino acids, purfi blood, reg clotts, boost immune factor.
Small intestines most nutrients are aborbed here, covered in Villi(tiny absorptive structures that increase surface area for interactions with chime(semi liquid mass of digested food)
large intestine also called the colon, stores waste materials. attaches to the rectum.
Pancreas the endocrine tissue secrete insulin. aids in digestion by secreting enzymes to the S.I.
Sensory nerons transmit signals to the central nervous sytem from sensory receptors associated with touch, pain, temperature, hearing, sight, smell, and taste
Motor Neurons transmit signals with the CNS to the rest of the body such as by signaling muscles or glands to respond.
Interneurons transmit signals between neurons; for example they recieve transmitted signals between sensory neruons and motor neurons.
cerebral cortex is a thin layer of gray matter covering the cerebrum.
Frontal lobe located in the front of the brain is responsible for a short term memory and working memory and information processing as well as decision-making, planning and judgment.
Parietal lobe is located slightly toward the back of the brain and the top of the head and is responsible for sensory input as well as spatial positioning of the body.
Occipital lobe is located at the back of the head just above the brain stem. It is responsible for visual input, processing, and output
Temporal lobes are located at the left and right side of the brain. these lobes are responsible for all auditory input, processing and output.

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