Tutuorial 29 Photosynthesis I

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Question Answer
What are the two types of photosynthetic reactions? Light-dependent and non-light-dependent.
How do heterotrophs like humans convert stored chemical energy? Into mechanical energy and heat.
metabolism All the chemical processes in a cell.
What is the simple formula for cellular respiration? Sugar + oxygen –> carbon dioxide + water + energy to do work.
What is the simple formula for photosynthesis? Light energy + carbon dioxide –> oxygen + sugar.
How do roots differ from leaves? Roots have no photosynthetic capability.
What do plants have in order to function properly? Chloroplasts and mitochondria to carry out photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Where does sunlight come from? Thermonuclear reactions in the sun that release electromagnetic radiation.
How does sunlight travel from place to place> Due to its wave and particle characteristics.
How do light, x-rays, microwaves, and radio waves differ? They have different wavelengths.
What can electromagnetic waves do to objects in their path? Transfer energy to them.
What is the visual range of the spectrum? 400-700 nm.
How does light act as a particle? A photon has a specific amount of energy; it can bump into and disturb things in its path.
What happens when light reaches another object? It is either reflected or absorbed.
pigments Compounds that absorb light.
What happens if a structure lacks pigments that absorb light in a given wavelength range? It will be reflected.
Why do chlorophyll-containing leaves appear green? Green light is reflected by green plants, instead of being absorbed.
Why are leaves red and orange in the fall? Because of carotenoids, which become prevalent when the chlorophyll is depleted.
chloroplasts Specialized organelles for photosynthesis in photosynthetic eukaryotes.
thylakoids Flattened saclike structures in chloroplasts surrounded by pigmented membrance on which the light reactions of photosynthesis take place.
carotenoid Accessory pigments in plants responsible for the red, yellow, and orange colors.
chlorophyll Any of several green photosynthetic pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria and chloroplasts of algae and plants.
electromagnetic radiation Waves and particles of energy that travel through space.
grana Membrane structure in chloroplasts of plants and algae that contain the chlorophyll and are the sites of light reactions of photosynthesis.
NADP+ and NADPH High-energy electron carrier molecule used in photosynthesis.
photochemistry A chemical reaction caused by absorption of light.
photon A fundamental particle of visible light.
photophosphorylation Conversion of ADP to ATP using sunlight energy.
photosynthesis Process by which light energy is used to reduce carbon dioxide to sugar.
photosystems I and II Chemical system in plants and other photosynthetic organisms in which chlorophyll absorbs light energy for photosynthesis.
Z-scheme The oxidation/reduction changes during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
What happens with the absorbed sunlight energy in a photosystem? It raises electrons associated with pigment molecules to a higher energy state.
What happens when a pigment molecule is raised to a higher energy state? They become unstable, bouncing around the photosystem until they reach a reaction center.
reaction center A specialized chlorophyll molecule at the center of a photosystem.
In a nonilluminated pigment, what state are the critical electrons in? Low-energy.
What is the main by-product of photosynthesis? Oxygen.
What are the two major stages of photosynthesis? The light-dependent reactions and the Calvin cycle.
What do the light-dependent reactions produce? ATP and NADPH.
What essentially happens in the Calvin cycle? ATP and NADPH are used in reactions to reduce carbon dioxide to sugar.
Where do the light-dependent reactions taken place? In chloroplasts.
How are chloroplasts similar to mitochondria? They are double-membrane organelles that use voltage to provide energy for building sugars.
What color ranges of the spectrum does chlorophyll absorb> Blue-violet and red.
What provides the energy for photosynthesis? Photons.
Where does an electron go after it reaches the reaction center? To the primary electron acceptor of the ETC.
How does an electron move through the ETC? Via a series of redox reactions.
What happens when an electron from photosystem II enters photosystem I? It is in a low-energy state until it is excited by another photon, gets sent to the reaction center, and is passed to the primary electron acceptor of the ETC.
What is the source of electrons used in photosynthesis? Water.
What are the by-products of the reaction that removed electrons from water? Protons and oxygen.
Where are the ETCs for photosynthesis located? In chloroplasts.
What happens during the redox reactions of the ETCs? Free energy is released.
What happens to the energy released in the ETC of photosystem II? It is used to pump protons into the thylakoid space.
What happens to protons in the thylakoid space? They accumulate and produce a voltage across the membrane.
What is the enzyme associated with the ETC? ATP synthase.
What does ATP synthase do? It uses the voltage formed by the build-up of protons in the thylakoid space as free energy to produce ATP.
How are the electrons used in the ETC of photosystem I? To reduce NADP+ to NADPH.
What are the two products of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis? ATP and NADPH.
What happens in the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis? ATP and NADPH are used to make sugar.
What is the simple light-dependent reaction of photosynthesis? Light + water –> NADPH and ATP + O2(by-product).
stroma The colorless fluid surrounding grana in a chloroplast.

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