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what was the key for trade occurring on a more frequent basis in which was discovered by the berbers camels (bc a pack animals couldn't travel as far whereas a camel could travel 60mi/day and go 10 days without water)
how was the kingdom of ghana able to amass in riches through the gold salt trade
how was ghana able to protect empire and wealth merchants met in trading cities under the watchful eye of the king's tax collector; taxing trade; royal officials made sure that all traders weighed goods fairly and did business according to law plus royal guards acted as protection against bandits
what did the king of ghana do in order to protect the value of gold? stored them so only he could own gold
what caused the gold salt trade to be so badly disrupted that it never allowed ghana to regain its power? war that arose from muslim almoravids of north africa contesting ghana
how was the rise of the kingdom of mali similar to that of ghana wealth built on gold
what allowed the kingdom of mali to sieze power miners who found gold deposits either east caused the most important trade routes to shift east making mali wealth and able to size power
who was sudianta and how did he obtain his power mali's mansa (emperor) and by crushing a cruel unpopular leader
what achievements ff sudianta accomplish outside of military victories? promoted agriculture, reestablish the gold salt trade, and put able administrators in charge of kali's finances, defense, and foreign affairs
how was mansa musa able to expand his empire twice the size of ghana's by his 100,000 men army who kept order and protected mali from attack, putting down every rebellion that arised
mansa musa was a devout muslim and went on the hajj to mecca…what did he do on his travels that let others see the wealth of mali gave away enormous amounts of gold
what did mans musa do upon his return from the hajj ordered boiling of new mosques and trading cities of timbuktu and Gao
which rulers converted to islam rulers after sudiata
what was one of the most important cities of the mali empire timbuktu
what were 3 reasons for the decline of mali mansa musa's sucessors lacked his ability of governing well; gold trade which was the basis of mali wealth shifted further eastward as new gold fields were discovered elsewhere
what allowed songhai to become the new dominant empire of west africa built up an army and extended their terrify to large bend in niger river near Gao; gained control of all important trade routes and gas became capitol of their empire
this person built vase empire by military conquest in songhai sunni ali
what were sunni ali's military achievements built professional riverboat fleet of war canoes and mobile fighting force on horseback; by 1468 this person achieved their first military triumph
what was the main reason that songhai lost its empire? how was this different from mali and ghana's loss of power sunni ali's son succeeded after his death but no one liked him bc he didn't practice islam as faithful so ask muhammad prove him out of power and replaced him; moroccan troops defeated songhai warriors bc of their lack of modern weapons
why did the gold salt trade work for both parties west africa sufficient in gold but lacked salt while sahara was loaded with salt and could use the gold
how were the east africa coast trade cities simulate to empire of west africa
what caused the creation of swahili language the blending of arabic with bantu bc of increase in interaction between the two
what were ensalved east africans used for before slavery dramatically increased in the 1700s? domestic tasks such as working on docks and ships at muslim controlled powers or as household servants in china (in 1700s used for colonial plantations
belief that spirits living in animals, plants, and natural forces play an important role in dialy life animism
what brought islam to ghana? how was this different than north africa trade where they settled here and introduced faith; ???
describe there actions that ghana's people had to islam and what was the typical reaction to the religions of islam and christianity spread to trade by the average african? many didn't;t convert bc of strong beliefs in animism; however those who converted kept many of former beliefs which they observed along with islam
Why would the growth of commerce cause Islam to spread? decrease in trade and trade lead to increase in interacting allowing for cultural diffusion
In the early centuries AD what was happening in Central and South America? ppl were entering full flowering of civilization (vs ppl in N America developing complex societies)
When and what happened during the "Classical Periods" of Mayan civilization? Ad 250- 900; Maya built spectacular cities
What were some of the things that Mayan cities featured? Giant pyramids, temples, palaces, & elaborate stone carvings all dedicated to gods and to important rulers
Describe the Maya City States Independent of each other but linked together through alliances and trade
What were the farming practices of the Maya? main crops; maize, beans; squash; sophisticated methods such as planting on raised beds above swamps and on hillside terraces
Describe the ways in which the Maya worshipped their Gods. prayed; made offerings of food, flowers and incense; pierced & cut body in brief that their blood nourished the gods; human sacrifices (usually captured enemies) bc they believed it pleased gods and kept world in balance
Why is the Mayan calendar so important? to know which god was in charge of the day (believed time was burden on god's backs & end of day, month or yr one sets it down & other picks it up)
What is the Mayan writing system? had over 800 hieroglyphic symbols called glyphs (Maya script)
What are three main reasons that historians conclude led to the fall of the Maya? Many physical & human resources funneled into religious activities; frequent warfare occurs between kingdoms; population growth creates need for more land
Describe the City of Teotihuacan city-state just outside of Mexico City which had largest pop of world at the time; love of city w/20 plus pyramids; people lived in apartment – block buildings; became center of thriving trade network that extended far into central america.
What is the most valuable trade item of the Aztecs and why? obsidian (green or black volcanic glass found in valley of mexico) bc it was used to make razor sharp weapons;
What was one major change in the that occurred when the Toltec's took over? worshipped fierce war god who demanded human blood and human sacrifice from followers
When did the Aztecs arrive in the Valley of Mexico? around 1200 AD (Aztecs poor nomadic ppl from harsh desert of northern mexico)
What God encouraged the Aztec people to found a city of their own? god of son & warfare: Ituitzilopochtli
Describe the triple alliance alliances between (aztecs, texcoco, &Illacopan) became leading power in valley of mexico & soon gained control over neighboring regions; by 1800s controlled vast empire covering 80K sq miles stretching frm cent mexico-atlantic & pac coasts & S intoOxaca??
Describe the type of sacrifices and religious practices that the Aztec took part in. ceremonies to communicate w gods where offerings & ritual dramas were presented; songs & dances ? with masked performers; rel cal varied on which god honored; blood letting bc they believed son god needed human blood to be strong enough to battle evil??
What are three main reasons that historians conclude led to the fall of the Aztecs.
What is one of the original beliefs of the Incas? that ruler must descend from sun god; ?? would bring prosperity & greatness to incan state
What did the Inca accomplish under Pachachui? conquered all of Peru & by 500 ruled an empire sketching miles along w/ coast of S America; empire had 80 provinces + 16 ppl
Describe the Incan government central bureaucracy; they created efficient economic system; imposed single lang (Quechra ?); founded schools to teach incan way; gov has total control over economic social life
What is quipu? an accounting device, a et of knotted strings that could be used to record data (tends to position on string – #s & color of string = diff categories if into important to gov)
Compare religious practices of the Inca's to the Aztecs and they Maya. offered animal & human sacrifices to please the gods; human sacrifice the most bc sun god needs human blood for nourishment; believes in after life, sacrifices & blood letting to please gods
What is the most sacred temple in the Inca Civilization? Why? Temple of the Sun (in Cuzo) bc decorated in "sweat of sun' & had a garden of plants & animals crafted entirely out of gold & silver
What are the three main reasons that historians conclude led to fall of the Inca. many physical & human resources funneled into religious activities; enemy could also use roads to more troops; ppl struggled to care for themselves w/the elimination of the welfare state

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